Narasingapalli Plates of Hastivarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 13, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 43. 

Narasingapalli Plates of Hastivarman -(Ganga) Year 79 (575 A.D.).

Samantvarman was followed by 

Maharaja Hastivarman during the year 79. (577 C.E). Most of his reign, he was busy securing borders of his kingdom and  was engaged in numerous battles. He  defeated a formidable confederacy of his adversaries.

 Hastivarman called himself as the Lord of All Kalingas i.e  Trikalingadhipati. Hastivarman was also known as Rajasimha. He was a devotee

of Narayana.

This charter records the grant of six

halas of land, four shrines (niresana), and a free food establishment in honour of lord Narayan, the Lord of the Seven Worlds, who sleeps on seven oceans.During his rule, Hastivarman relocated the headquarters of his kingdom from Dantapura to Kalinganagara, on the banks of the Vamsadhara River.

Provenance: Narasingapalli, Chicacole taluka, Ganjam district, Andhra Pradesh.

Script: Early Southern type of Brahmi of 5th-6th centuries, A.D.

Language: Sanskrit

References Bharati Telugu, XI, pp.461ff. R.C. Majumdar, Ep.Ind, XXIII, pp.62-67.

Also known from Urlam plates of the year 80 (Ep.Ind, XVII, pp.330 and Infra, IV,44 )

Footnote 1.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. between pp.66 and 67.

2. Kalinganagara was identified by fleet with Kalingapatam (Ind. Ant. XVI, pp.132) and by G.V. Ramamurti with


3. Hultzech (Ep.Ind,. XVII, pp.232, 1.2) reads this conjunct as rnna, But it is obvious that in doubling the

consonant n. the top line curves are not repeated.

4. Rohanaki is identified by Majumdar with modern Ronunky

(pronounced Ronanki) in chicacole taluk. Further, Navagrama in the varahavartani vishaya, mentioned in

Ganjam plates of VajrahastaIIi (Ep.Ind.. XXIII, pp.73) is identified with the present Naogam in Tekkali taluk of

Ganjam district. Varahavartani vishaya, 

therefore, roughly corresponds to the coastal region between chicacole and Tekkali.

Footnote 2.

1. Garta is used in the sense of a canal in Manu, IV 203. A vishaya-garta should be a feature more prominent than a mere pit or a trench. It seems to have

been used here in the sense of canal irrigating a large part of the vishaya.

English Translation of the inscription.

Om ! Hail ! From the victorious (city of kalinganagara, which is pleasant in all seasons,the illustrious Maharaja

Hastivarman a great devotee of Mahesvara (siva): who

meditates on the feet of ( his) mother and father, whose feet


Rajasimha and Ranabhita, the two birudas of Hastivarman, recorded here are also mentioned in his urlam plates

Ep.Ind., VII, pp.330, and infra , IV, 44, LL24-25)

are lighted by the beam of light sprouting from the crest jewels

of all the feudatories made to submit by his excessive valour, in whom the spotless house of the Gangas stands firmly, who aroused the shouts of victory in the melees of many battles whose flawless fame extends over the surface of the earth girdled by

the waves of the four oceans: who acquired the overlordship of

the entire Kalinga with the flourish of the edge of his own

sword, who is the support of good conduct, wisdom and wealth,

from whom the blemishes of the Kali age have been removed by

(his) obeisance to the pair of lotus-like feet of the Lord Gokarnasvamin, the sole architect of the creation of the entire world, commands the assembly of all the agricultural householders in Rohanaki, within the district of Varahavarttani,

Be it known to you that on the advice of the Bhogika Buddhamanchi, we have donated in this village, for the increase

of religious merit of (our) mother, father and our selves, six halas of (duly) de-markated land together with four houses, making it an agrahara for the god, to last as long as the moon

and the sun do and having exempted it from all taxes, to Lord Narayana,

–who sleeps over the seven oceans, who is sung in seven hymns

(rathantara etc.) of the samaveda, who is the sole lord of the

seven worlds, and who has the designation of Ranabhitodaya, —for the performance of bali, charu and satra rites, and for the repairs of wear and tear (of the temple)

“Knowing thus nobody should cause any hindrance. The boundary marks here are:  On the east of this

(land) the borrow-pits of the village; on the south a mound of earth, on the west, the district canal with the Kuravaka+thicket on the north, it is attached the palm-grove.

And the future kings should maintain this religious gift. And likewise, the verses sung by vyasa are quoted:-

(Here follow three of the customary verses).

In the year seventy-nine, 79, of the prosperous and victorious dynastic reign, on the twelfth day of the bright

fortnight of Jyestha.

At his oral command this charter of Rajasimha has been written by V inayachandra, the son of Bhanu-


This is the charter of the illustrious Ranabhita, whose commands are irresistible, who has completely crushed the hostile confederacy by the friction of the edges of his discus.


According to Majumdar, the epoch of the Ganga era falls between 494 and 570 A.D. ( Ep.Ind. XXIII, pp.63). D.C.

Sircar, (Select.Inss, I, pp.485, n.1) arrives at 496-97 A.D. as the initial year of this era. V.V. Mirashi

favours 498 AD. as such (Ep. Ind,, XXVI pp.326 ff,)

For further discussion, see supra, IV, 41, n1. See also, R Subba Rao, J.A.H.R.S, V, pp.272-274, who suggested

494 A D. as the initial Year and J.C. Ghosh, Ind. Ant, 1932. pp. 237,who suggests 496 A.D.

Ponnuturu Plates of Samantavarman (Ganga) year 64.

Written by Alok Mohan on January 12, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 42.

Ponnuturu Plates of Samantavarman (Ganga) year 64.

Next king in the Ganga dynasty lineage, who issued this grant was Samantavarman,  in the year 64 (562 CE) Samantvarman, like his predecessor, assumed the title of


The Eastern Ganga kings ruled over Kalinga  and maintained a firm grip on Kalinga and established an era of their own, which was used in their official charters for over five centuries, however their rule was restricted on  the south by the Eastern Chalukyas and on the north by the


king Harshadeva defeated the Gangas during eighth century CE. Nagabhata, the Pratihara king, conquered Kalinga

and Andhra in the early ninth century CE.

 Around the middle of the ninth

century, the Eastern Gangas were briefly ruled by the Bhaurna Karas, and in the second half of that century, the Eastern Chalukyas claimed supremacy over Kalinga. 

The Eastern Gangas were briefly ruled by the Somavamsis in the late

tenth century CE, and Indraratha served as governor of Kalinga before being

crowned king at Yayatinagara around 1000 CE Vajrahasta V, who ascended to

the throne of Kalinga in 1038 CE and established that territory as an

independent and powerful entity, brought an end to the Somavamsi supremacy

over the Eastern Gangas. Despite their fortunes fluctuating,  Vajrahasta V

abolished the Ganga era and instituted the Soka era, which wos adopted by all

subsequent Ganga kings.


Provenance: Ponnuturu village on the northern bank of the river vamsadhara, Patapatnam taluk Vishakhapatanam

district, Andhra Pradesh.

Script: Early southern type of Brahmi, known as the Kalinga variety of Telugu-Kannada alphabet.

Language: Sanskrit.

References:- M. Somasekhara sarma, Ep.Ind. XXVII, pp.216-20.

Footnote 1.

1. After the Jir-jingi plate of Indra-varman (supra,IV,41)

these are the earliest known Ganga dynasty grants. Kings Prasasti developed gradually till it attained

a standardised form in the plates of Hastivarman.

After him, his model was followed by his successors.

2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXVII, between pp. 218 and pp.219.

3. Expressed by a symbol.

4. Normally, the word जय  or विजय is prefixed to the name of the capital city and hence it would appear that

this charter was issued from the Victorious city of Srinivasa. However, I have accepted sarma’s view that

Saumyavana was the name of the city because a saumyapura, known from Kondedda grant of Dharma-Rajadeva of sailodbhava family (Ep.Ind,. XIX, pp.269,

text 1,42) But I doubt that the saumuavana of Pandava vanavasa in mahabharata, can be identified with the present one.

Footnote 2.

1. Gokarna is the name of a place of pilgrimage in the south, sacred to siva.

2. It may be noted that except Indravarman of the Jirjingi

plates (Supra,IV, 41) and Samantavarman of the present one, no other early Ganga king, claims the title, Trikalingadhipati.

3. The exact location of Daghapanchali vishaya is not known. In Ganga records some other vishaya-names ending in panchali are found, e.g. Koroshodaka-panchali (Ep.,Ind.XXI, pp.24. Supra,IV, 16, L2)

Devanna-panchali (Ind.Ant, XXVI, pp.134,)  Pushyagiri-panchali Ep.Ind,. XXVI.  pp.63) and chikhali-panchali

J.A.H.R.S, X. pp.165).

4. Somasekhara sarma ventures the suggestion that Pratishtha-pura may be a sanskritised form of a desi name like

Peruru, the Word Peru being equivalent to the sanskrit word Pratishtha.

The tendency of sanskritisation of ordinary village names prevailing in early times in Kalinga is proved by the Brihattproshtha grant of Umavarman

(Ep Ind, XII, pp.4 ff. and plate)

English Translation of the inscription


By constant obeisance and service and the like to the Lord of Gokarna (i.e. Siva) who lives on the excellent peak of the Mahendra mountain, is the cause of the existence, creation and the dissolution of the world, bears incomplete (i.e,a single digit of the) moon as his crest and is the father of the animate and inanimate world, commands the aggregate of

all the householders residing in Pratishthapura in the district

of Daghapanchali. Be it known to you that on being advised by (our) maternal uncle, Adityaraja, we have on the occasion of the vernal equinox (uttarayana) granted with libation of water, this Village (of Pratishthapura), exempt of all taxes and making into an agrahara for as long as the duration of the moon, the

sun and the stars, for the increase of religious merit of mother, father and myself, to Yajnasarman, Gaurisarman,

Agnisarman and Omasarman. All of the Vatsa gotra and students

of the Vajasaneya sakha (of the white Yajurveda). On learning

this, you should present him the appropriate share and benefits.

And of the future kings, he (samantavarman) orders his own

descendants and advises, others in the matter of protecting this righteous gift that having obtained the earth

through righteousness, heritage or valour, the kings should

preserve this lawful gift.


O Kings, be not apprehensive of missing the Fruit (i.e.

reward for this meritorious deed) because of it being another’s

gift. As compared to one own gift, the reward for preserving another’s gift is eternal.

Further, there are verses sung by Vyasa (in support of the above contention)

Here follow three of the customary verses).*

This is the thirteenth day of the bright fortnight of the month of Pausha of the flourishing and victorious sixty fourth

Year of the dynastic reign. The deliverer (i.e. executor) of

the King’ s order was Adityavarman And this (charter) was recorded and engraved by vinayachandra, the son of Bhanuchandra.

This is an order of illustrious samantavarman, who is

the autumnal (i.e. bright) moon in the firmament of the Ganga

Dynasty, is the chastisor of enemies, and possesses radiating

lustre. The year 64. the 28th day of Pausha.

Footnote 3.

Note that the 13th day of the bright fortnight, is identical with the 28th day of the month of Pausha.

The luner month was reckoned Purnimanta in this as well

as the other early Ganga records cf. the Urlam plates of the eighth tithi of the dark fortnight

of Karttika is equated with the eighth tithi of the same month) and the Tekkali plates of Devendravarman (where the luner eclipse is recorded on the 30th of Maghas see

I.H.Q. X pp,8. 300 ff)

Jirjingi Copper-plate Inscription of Indravarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 11, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 41. 

Jirjingi Copper-plate Inscription of Indravarman. Ganga Year 39, (535 A.D.)

The Gangas of Andhra Pradesh are also called  Eastern Gangas, which is a branch of mysore’s Western Gangas. Kumarnava, was the founder of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. He had

migrated from Kolahalapura in Gangabadivishaya (of mysore) to Kalinga along with his four brothers, while his paternal uncle, continued ruling Mysore. He defeated Savara Chief Baladitya & occupied Kalinga country. He was a worshipper of Siva. 

Indravarman 1, whose Jirjingi copper-plate grant was issued in the Ganga year 39, is the first ruler of Eastern Ganga dynasty. He was a powerful ruler, commanding a large number of vassal chiefs. He establishing his capital at Dantapura.

Indravarman is identified with Adhiraja Indra, who defeated the Vishnukundin

king Indrabhattaraka on his elephant Kumuda while mounted on his elephant

Supratika.  He was the first great ruler of the Ganga dynasty and the founder of the Ganga era, which

began in 498 CE This is almost certainly the year he ascended to the Ganga

Provenance: Jirjingi near Tekkali, Srikalkulam District, Andhra Pradesh.

Script: Late Brahmi of the E Northern class.

Language: Sanskrit.

Metre: Vv 1-2 अनुष्टुब  (श्लोक)

Footnote 1.

1. As the feudatories of the Gangas, the  Kadambas of Kalinga, also used this era. Hence some scholars call it the Ganga-kadamba era. It’s commencement is a disputed question The chief evidence for fixing the date of commencement of the Ganga era is the date viz.  शकाब्द ( = ब्दे )  नव शतक सप्त रश मत ( = मिते ) given in the mandasa plates issued in the reign of Ananta-varman. (J.A.H.R.S, V, pp.272f)  and the Santa  Bommali plates issued in 520 Ganga era, in the reign of Devendravarman, son of Anantavaman (ibid.. pp.171 f.). But is emended differently by different scholars. Some take the word as seven Six and read the date as either 976 or as 967, as per astronomic convention. Sircar amends it to and takes tie date as 917 +x A D.,  as the date of Anantavarman. And as hence the date of his son Devendravarman will be saka 917 + x = 995 + x -520 A.D. which is 520 Ganga, according to his own grant.

Thus 995 + x-520 = 475 +X A.D. i.e. the Ganga era started a few Years after 475 A.D. Bhandarkar’s List No.1474

refers to a lunar eclipse on Margasirsa Purnamasi in the Ganga year 128, i.e. 475 + 128+x A.D. = 603 + x A.D. Lunar eclipse on margasirsa Purnima after

603 A.D. occurred in AD. 606. 607. 624, 625, 626 etc

There are also references to solar eclipses in the Ganga years 154, 304, 351 etc. (ibid., Nos.1477, 1432

and 1484 respectively) If Margasirsa-purnima in Ganga

Year 128 is equated th 30th November, 624 A.D., all the other dates are fairly satisfactorily explained. Hence

sirca accepts 496-97 A.D. as the initial year of the Ganga era, and surmises that it started in the first regnal Year of the king Indravarman of the present plates.

Mirashi favours 498 A.D. (Ep.Ind., XXVI, pp.326 ff. and ibid, XXVII,  pp.192) According to him the Ganga era

commenced on the ananta chaitra sudi.1, in the saka year 420 ( 14th March 498 A.D. )

Footnote 2.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXV, facing pp. 286.

2. Symbol for ओम

3. Possibly earlier known as Dantakura, the ancient city of Dantapura, has been identified with Ptolemy’s Paloura,

from Dravidian Pal (tooth)+ ur (city), and with the modern Dantavaktra near Sri-kakulam in Andhra Pradesh.

Digha Nikaya, P.T.S.. pp.235, Mahagovinda suttanta refer

to Dantapura as the capi tal of the Kalingas. It is stated that a stupa over the lower canine tooth of the Buddha was built here, Hence the name.

The tooth was later removed to srilanka.

4. In later records Siva Gokarnesvara on Mahendragiri peak, is mentioned as the tutelary deity of the Eastern

Ganga kings.

Footnote 3.

1. चातुदर्दन्त = एरावत The mount of Indra, who is

the guardian of the eastern quarter.

The reference may be to Indravarman’s struggles with some eastern

power or it may Just be a conventional eulogy.

2. Mostly is used in this record for

3. The Punctuation mark is redundant.

Footnote 4.


1.  त्रिकलिडन्ग is distinct from त्रिलिडन्ग

or Telengana.

Located possibly between Kalinga and south Kosala, this territory originally belonged to somavamsis,

who also styled themselves as Trikalgadhipatis.

Adoption of this title by Indravarman, Kalachuris of chedi and the later Gangas is possibly due to their encroachment into somavamsi tertitory. since,  other equally 

powerful Ganga kings, excepting Vajrahasta 3, do not assume this title, it is not plausible to accept that

Trikalinga is the collective name of eastern, central and western parts of Kalinga, or of Kalinga and Utkala and Kosala or of Kalinga with Kongoda and Utala or Kosala.

It must have been contiguous to Vengi country, whose rulers, the Eastern chalukyas of 10th and 11th centuries

A D. describe their kingdom of vengi as

त्रिकलिडन्ग- सहित  and त्रिकलिडन्गाटवी – युकत 

2. The punctuation mark is not required.

3. Same as modern Jiringi.

4. The mark of punctuation is superfluous.

English Translation of the inscription.

Om Hail From the prosperous city of Dantapura, which vies with the city of gods the glorious Maharaja

Indravarman, Lord of the three Kalingas, all of whose sins, had been shaken off by the pile of religious merit

acquired through constant obeisance to Lord siva, the cause

of the creation, preservation and destruction of the entire world, who is a sun in the firmament of the spotless family, of the Gangas who has his pair of feet made tawny coloured

by the contact with the lustre of brilliant rubies fitted in the crowns of the samanta nripatis and Mandaladhipatis,

Subdued by, edge of his stainless unsheathed sword in the

course of his victories in battles fought, with many four-tusked elephants,

who has his friends. the virtuous, his

relatives and supplicants find relief in the shade of the arbour, as it were, of his enormous wealth obtained by his

unequalled might and exertion, who is devoted to the feet of his

Parents   Issues (the following) order to all the assemblage

householders of the village oE Jijjika belonging to the Vonkhara bhoga.

we have granted this village, after dividing it into equal shares and making it an agrahara, to last as long as

the oceans, the mountains, the moon, the stars and the san do,

and exempting it with all the tax-exemptions- for the

increase of our own religious merit, life, fame and strength as also for the acquisition of religious merit by our parents- to Agnisvamin, son of Rudrasvamin, who belongs to the

Vishnuvriddha gotra and is the scholar of Taittiriya sakha

(of the Yajurveda) and his son, Rudrasvamin. Therefore

accordingly you should attend upon him according to the

usages obtaining heretofore. And exhort the future kings:-

Even having acquired the overlord ship of the round earth, as a consequence of any one of (the three causes, namely

the righteousness, Inheritance and valour, you should preserve

this inherited gift while ruling over this earth. Also

there are two verses:-

(Here follow two customary verses).

Terasingha Grant of Tushtikara

Written by Alok Mohan on January 10, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Most of  Bhaumakara inscriptions are dated in samvat years & this era began from year 736 CE, and marks the beginning of the Bhauma-Kara, However, some historians suggest beginning of Bhaumakara era to 831 CE. Earlier Bhauma-Kara kings ruled the northern Toshali area. They probably ruled most of the coastal region of Odisha. The Bhauma-Kara family suffered from internal strifes starting around CE. 880, which gradually led to its downfall & subsequently the Bhauma-Kara throne was divided into very small kingdoms. The Bhauma-Kara kings were tolerant towards Buddhism as well as Shaivism. Ancient sites in Kalahandi district like, Budhigarh, Urlukupagarh, Terasingha, Jamugudapadar or  Jamgudapadarand Chandrsagarnala (Medinipur) brought to light stone–metal  age characteristics, usage of stone tools and limited application of copper were a few hallmark of this phase of the evolution of civilisation and culture.  Artistic achievement of the stone-metal age people of Kalahandi is, therefore  unique. The neck portion of a vessel found from this site along with, a red ware, black paintings & discovery of, spiral design copper hair pins recovered from Budhigarh  shows similarity with Indus valley culture. Most of the inscriptions found from Kalahandi are in  Sanskrit language.  The history of Kalinga region underwent great change about the middle of the fourth  century AD. after the South India campaign of Samudragupta. The political situation of the  period contributed to the rise of a new ruling dynasty named Mathara. In ancient time the  Mathara family as well as bhamikaras, had enjoyed very  high political and social status.  Ancient  Terasingha settlement is located on a piece of land close to the right bank of the river Tel. This site has already revealed four sets of copper plates. An early historic settlement has been spotted near the village Talbhamra, a sector of  Rajpadar–Belkhandi. The revenue land called Pandkipadia has revealed  early historic antiquities.

40. Terasingha Grant of Tushtikara.

Provenance: Village Terasingha (also called Tersinga), on the southem bank of the river Tel, Kalahandi district, Orissa.

Script: Kalinga variety of the southern class of Brahmi of the first half of the 6th century A.D.

Language: Sanskrit.

Footnote 1.

1. Tushtikara and sobhonna or Sobhinna, who figures in the endorsement on the outer side of the first plate, are not known from any other source. Their dominions were so small that no specifications of the district was needed regarding the location of the donated land. It apparently comprised Trarabhramaraka and Parvatadvaraka in the present Kalahandi region of Orissa.

2. The main, (original) charter begins with svasti Tarabhramarakat on the inner side of the first plate and was issued by Maharaja Tushtikara. It ends/pramukham on the inner side of Third Plate. The language of the main charter is fairly accurate. A later endorsement, first begun on the outer side of third plate, then beaten out and engraved in entirety on the outer side of the first, was made by Kasthubhasayya (= Kaustubhesvari ) the mother of Sobhonna-raja and was issued from Parvata-dvaraka. Earlier type of lettering, defective language and recording it before the main document, as if it was written earlier, suggest that it is a forgery.


Satyanarayana Rajaguru, Journal of the Kalinga. Historical Research society, II, Nos. 2-3, 1947, pp.107 ff, and Plates; D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind,, XXX, pp.274-78.

Footnote 2.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXX, between pp.276 and 277.

2. The names of both the mother and son are carelessly engraved.

3. भोगक क्षेत्र = भोग क्षेत्र  Possibly the piece of land in

question was being an enjoyed by the persons named Daya, Jvara and Ulaka.

4. The head of the first danda is turned into a loop, as found in other records also. The double danda is

followed by the representation of a conch-shell.

Footnote 3.

1. May be identical with the present village of Tala-Bhamara, three km. south of Belkhandi-Rajapadar, on the

bank of, the Utei, a tributory of the Tel river.

2. The aborigines of Orissa worship wooden pillars posted at the corner of their villages. This aboriginal deity was gradually adopted by the orthodox Hindus and was named as stambhesvari (now called Khambesvari). A few temples are now dedicated to her in orissa (see Mazumdar, “Orissa in the Making”, pp.107)

3. Two Small horizontal strokes represent the punctuation mark.

4. This sentence should have been engraved before api chatra in the previous sentence.


Footnote 4.

1. This half verse is engraved here by mistake. It is repeated in 11.11-12 as part of the full verse

यस्य and तस्य both should occur only twice.

2. Two visarga-like dots after फलं

are presumably meant

to be a double danda punctuation mark.

Footnote 5.

1. This type of a double set of punctuation marks is engraved here.

2. The entire line was first engraved here and was beaten out and the complete endorsement carried to the outer first side of the first plate.

English Translation of the inscription.

Hail from Parvatadvaraka, the farm enjoyed by Daya, Jvara, Ulaka and others has been granted, to last as long as the moon and the son, to the Brahmana Dronasvamin of Kasyapa gotra by Kaustubhesvari the mother of the illustrious Sobhonna-raja who is a devotee of the feet of stambhesvari.

Main charter:

Hail From Tarabhramaraka, the illustrious Maharaja Tushtikara, a devotee of the feet of Stambhesvari and contemplating on the feet of his mother and father, commands all the assembled cultivators, resident in Prastaravataka:- We have granted this vataka making it an agrahara to last as long as the moon, the stars and the sun do to venerable Dronasarman of Kasyapa gotra for the increase of our religious

merit, longevity, strength and fame. Therefore, knowing thus, You should attend upon him according to the proper previously established custom. And there are also verses sung by Vyasa, (which) he commends to the future kings:-

Here follow six customary verses, of which the fifth and the sixth being new, are tran slated as under)-

5. A king who grants land becomes a supreme ruler, as also the one who performs Agnistoma and many other sacrifices accompanied with ample gifts to Brahmanas.

6. The Adityas, the vasus, the Rudras led by the fire-god and also Lord Siva applaud the giver of land.

Intimated to the confidential secretary Subhandhu.

Written by Sadgamaka.

The farmland is follow and mainly Rocky.

Seal: the illustrious Tushtikara.



Literally, an enclosure or a garden or a plantation. But here, it seems to have been used as an abbreviation of Prastaravataka or Prastara hamlet.

Pedda-Dugam Plates of Shatrudamana

Written by Alok Mohan on January 9, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 39. 

Pedda-Dugam Plates of Satrudamana, Regnal Year 9.

Sanskrit term Satrudamana can be translated into Shatrudamana.

Satrudamana is the name of an ancient king mentioned in this “Peddadugam

plates of Satrudamana” (5th century A.D.). He ruled from Siṃhapura, which has been identified with modern Singupuram near Srikakulam. King Shatrudamana mentioned in this inscription, is one among the earlier rulers, who had issued the charters from Simhapura. These plates were discovered during laying down of  foundation of a house in the village Pedda-Dugam in Narasannapet Taluk of the Srikakulam District, Andhra Pradesh. The plates were issued to the villagers headed by Brahmaṇas, residing in different localities.

Provenance: Pedda-Dugam Narssannapet taluk, Srikakulam

district, Andhra Pradesh.

Peddadugam village is located in Jalumuru mandal of Srikakulam district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is situated 5km away from sub-district headquarter Jalumuru and 30km away from district headquarters of Srikakulam.

Script: Brahmi of the southem class, of about the 5th century A.D.

Language: Sanskrit.

References: V. Bhanumurty, Bharati, Telugu, March, 1955, pp.86 ff. J.A.H.R.S, XX XI, pp.159 ff. D.C.

Sircar, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.89 ff.

Footnote 1.

1. This charter, for the first time, reveals

 the existence of King Satru-damana, who ruled in central Kalinga from Simhapura, identifed with singupuram near Sriikakulam. His family affiliation is not known, It is tempting to connect him with Daman of Erandapalla

(also in central Kalinga) whom Samudragupta is known,

from his Allahabad prasasti to have captured and reinstated. But beyond the similarity of names, we have no evidence to do so.

According to Sircar, he preceded the kings of the Pitribhakta, Mathara and

Vasishtha families, who are known from their charters to have ruled in this area in the 5th and early 6th

centuries A.D. His epithet Bhattaraka-pada-parigrihita,

evidently refers to the title, Parama-bhattaraka, of the

Imperial Guptas, and indicates that he acknowledged the overlordship of the contemporary Gupta emperor. His

silence about the name of his sovereign shows that he enjoyed considerable autonomy.

Footnote 2.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., X, between pp.92 and 93.

2. Expressed by the usual spiral symbol.

3. Simha-pura is identified with modern Singupuram in Srikakulam district in Andhra Pradesh.

4. The temples in ancient India were named after their builders.

His devotion to the divinity of the temple built by Damana further suggests Satrudamana’s descent from him.

5. Duha-grama seems to be identical with Pedda-Dugam

( literally, Greater Dugam) the find-spot of the charter.

6. The modern telgu numeral 2, is engraved on the left margin. A similar figure for 1 is found on the blank side of the first plate.

Second plate second side.

The proper place for this sentence is after the next one.

Footnote 3.

1. Engraved on the left margin.

2. Amsuman is evidently used here in the sense of Sitamsuman i.e the moon.

English Translation of the inscription.

Om! From the victorious city of Simha-pura, the illustrious Maharaja Satrudamanadeva, who is devoted to the Lord Damanesvarasvamin and is favoured by His Majesty (the

emperor) writes, after enquiring about their well-being in body and other matters, to the villagers led by Brahmanas, in the villages, of Duhagrama, Vasuvataka and Govataka within the Varddhamana agrahara of Giri-Kalinga district.

All these three hamlets have been granted making them, a Brahmana fief (i.e. an agrahara) by me, to these two Brahmanas, namely Vappasarman and Sarvasarman, who are the sons of

Yajnasarman, who belongs to Kaundinya gotra, who are students of

Taittiriya sakha of the Yajurveda and who are the residents of Pattuva-grama, for the increase of my own religious merit.

Therefore, you should hear and execute their orders of this property, two shares are assigned to Sarvasarman and one

share to Vappasarman. You should present them all the lawful profits, such as measurable (meva) commodities etc. In this context there are verses

v.1: He, who welcomes a meritorious act even mentally, waxes i.e prospers to his heart’s content like the moon

during the bright fortnight.

(Here follow three of the oft-repeated customary verses.)

This has has been written (by me) (Dated) the year ninth,

9th, the tenth day of the month of Ashadha The executor of

the grant, the physician Krishnadatta.

Kanukollu Plates of Skandavarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 8, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 38.
Kanukollu Plates of Skandavarman Regnal Year 1.
These copper plates were found alongwith salankayana copper plate in the village of Kanukollu, in 1940.
The plates were discovered near the an old fort.
Various other rare gold and lead coins were also found in the same location.
This charter records the donation of a village of Kompara in Kudarahara district to the Chaturvaidya community who resided in Rathakara. The charter was issued from Vengipura, which has been identified as the modern village of Pedavegi.
Provenance: Kanukollu, Gudivada taluk,
Krishna district, A.P.
Script: Brahmi of the Southern class, closely resembling the characters of Nandi-varman. Kanukollu plates
and other salankayana charters.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: B.V. Krishna Rao, Ep.Ind, XX, pp.7-10.
Footnote 1.

  1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind XXXI.
  2. The serial numbers of all sides of the plates are engraved in the left margin.
  3. Compare the genealogical list given here with that of the Pedavegi plates of the salankayana king Nandivarman 2, (J A.H.R.S, I, pp.92ff, Successors of the Satavahanas, pp 331ff)

Kanukollu Plates
1, Hastivarman 1

  1. Nandi varman 1
  2. Hastivaman 2.
  3. Skandavarman
    Pedavegi Plates
  4. Hastivarman 1.
  5. Nandivarman 1.
  6. Achanda-varman
  7. Nandi varman 2.
    & younger Sons.
    The last two rulers in both the lists are given the title of Maharaja, indicating that after Nandivarman, the salankayana house was split up into two branches each claiming a sovereign status.
    Achanda-varman, whose coins have also been found, must have
    been the younger brother of Hastivarman 2, as the
    grandfather’s name was customarily given to the eldest grandson. Achandavarman’s title yuva Maharaja in his Dharikatura grant ( Supra IV,L 4) shows that the elder brother, Hastivarman 2, was superceded, leading to his revolt and establishing himself as an independent ruler after his father’s death.
    Maharaja Nandi varman’ s Kanukollu plates (supra IV, 34 ) name Maharajaputa Hatthisami ,.
    and Balaka Maharajakumara Khanda-potta.They evidently are
    identical with Hastivarman and Skandavarman, the son and grandson respectively of Nandivarman in the present charter.
    Footnote 2.
  8. Singular number indicates that chaturvaidya is used here,
    as in tthe Kanukollu plates of Nandivarman (Supra,IV, 343, L13) to specify a particular person. Presumably, there was only one person
    in Rathakara village bearing this surname, rendering it unnecessary to mention his personal name or identification.
    I do not agree with D.C. sircar ( EP.Ind, XXXI, pp.7, n.4, pp.10, n.4) that chaturvaidya in the present grant
    and chaturejja in Kanukollu grant of Nandivarman (Supra, IV, 34, L.13) refer to the community of the chaturvedin Brahmanas, residing at Rathakara”. The noun itself as also all its adjectives used in either charter are in singular.
    The noun and its adjectives should have been in plural form, if the gift was meant for a community. Further, it
    appears that the donee of the present charter was identical with that of the Nandivarman’s charter and
    that Hastivarman’s intervening reign must have been brief.
    English Translation of the inscription.

Hail from the victorious city of Vengi.
At the command of the illlustrious salankayana Maharaja skandavarman,
who meditates on the feet of the holy lord chitraratha, who is devoted to the feet of his royal father, who is a
son of the illlustrious Maharaja Hastivarman, whose glory
was embraced by the waves of (all) the four oceans, who is a grandson of the illustrious Maharaja Nandivarman, who had with his own prowess stripped his enemies of their armours,
(i.e had subjugated them) (and) who is a great-grand son of the illustrious Maharaja Hasti-varman whose deeds of valour at.the head of many a battle are widely acclaimed. The
villagers in the village of Kompara of
Kudrahara should be told:-
We have given this village, for the increase of fame, fortune, victory and wel lfare of our family, to chaturvaidya,
a resident of (the village of Rathakara, having made it a brahmadeya (i.e. an agrahara and exempting it from all
the taxes. Having known that, proper services be rendered to him, according to the previously existing terms.
Besides, officers-in-charge of all the departments and their subordinates
should let that village alone.
(This) (copper)-plate charter has been given on the first day of the bright fortnight of the month of Karttika in
the first year of our flourishing glorious and victorious reign.
(Here follows one of the customary verses).

Kanteru Plates of Vijayaskandavarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 7, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 37.
Kanteru Plates of salankayana Vijaya-Skanda-Varman.
(First quarter of 4th century A.D.) Regnal year 1.
As we are aware that, the Vengi throne was again captured by Achandavarman, the
eldest son of Nandivarman, namely
the Hastivarman 2, who was over looked in succession to the
throne. However his son
Skandavarman was instrumental in placing him on the throne. At this stage Hastivarman was very old. He was succeeded by Vijaya-Skanda-Varman.
Provenance: Kanteru Guntur taluk and district, Andhra Pradesh.
Kantheru village is located in Tadikonda mandal of Guntur district in Andhra Pradesh, India. It is situated 7km away from sub-district headquarter Tadikonda and 16km away from district headquarters Guntur. Mangalagiri is nearest town to kantheru for all major economic activities, which is approximately 13km away from this village.
Script: South-eastern Brahmi of 3rd to 6th century A.D.
Footnote 1. 
1.  Hastivarman of this list appears to be identical with the Vaingeyaka 
Hastivarman whom samudra-gupta (320 to 355 A.D. )
claims in his Allahabad Prasasti (Supra, II,5) to have subdued.
The salan-kayana king, Vijaya-Deva-varman, must
be placed earlier, because the language of his charter is Prakrit, which was in vogue before the Imperial Guptas made sanskrit universally popular
as the language of state administration on the basis of similarity of script and phraseology used
in the present grant to that in the Prakrit plates of Vijaya-Deva-varman (Supra, IV, 33)and the Omgodu grant of vijaya-skanda-varman 2, (Supra, IV,23) also the Uruvupalli grant of
simha-varman, Panchamukhi concludes that Vijaya-Skanda-Varman, of the present record flourished close
after Vijaya-Deva-Varman and was a predecessor or an elder contemporary of Hastivarman.
The charter of Vijaya-Skanda-Varman records a donation of the village of Chinnapura in Kudrahara vishaya to Sivarya, a resident of the village of Lekumari and a member of the Maudgalya gotra. The donation was made by Vijaya-Skandavarman and was issued from Vengipura, (modern village of Pedavegi)
The grant was issued on the full moon day of Vaisakha in the 1st year of Skandavarman’s reign.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: K.V. Lakshmana Rao, J. Andhra Historical Research Society, V, pp. 21ff. R.S. Panchamakhi, 
EP Ind. XXV,  pp.42-47.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXV, between pp. 46 and 47.
2. All inscribed sides are numbered in the left margin.
English Translation of the inscription.
Peace ! From the victorious (city of Vengi) At the command of the illustrious Maharaja Vijaya-Skanda-Varman, a
salankayana, a meditator on the feet of Lord chitrarathasvamin.

Peugonda Plates of Hastivarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 6, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 36.
Peugonda Plates of Hastivarman 2, Regnal, Year 2.
As we are aware that consequent to demise of Nandivarman, his brother Devavarman, occupied
the throne. He performed a horse
sacrifice and declared himself as
Vijaya-deva-varmman After 15 years of
his rule, the throne was again
occupied by Achanda-varman the
eldest son of Nandivarman, namely
the Hastivarman 2, who was earlier
over looked in succession to the
throne, for which no definite cause
could be established.
His son Skandavarman seems to have placed him on the throne, most probably as a collateral line at Jayapura, their
headquarters. Since Hastivarman 2, was yery old he could be assigned
only a couple ot years He was
succeeded by Skandavarman, whose
rule too might have got lost after a few years.
We have discussed earlier that consequent to internal war of succession for the throne, within the family that is between Scandavarman and Nandivarman 2, the latter succeeded to the throne and
Due to these internal conflicts, the Salankayanas power waned.
Provenance: Penngonda, West Godavari district, Andhra Pradesh,
Penugonda is a town West Godavari district. Narasapuram to Nidafavoli main line passes through Penugonda.
Script: Brahmi southern class, of the fourth century A.D.
Language: Prakrit admixed with Sanskrit, concluding verses in Sanskrit.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind.. XV,
pp.145 to 150.
Footnote 1.
1. This Hastivarmans, should be a king of the Salan-kayana dynasty, known to have been ruling the country between
the Krishna and Godavari rivers about this time. Of the two Hastivarmans known of this dynasty, the first
was a contemporary of samudragupta (340-76 A.D.). The second Hastivarman was a son (probably the eldest)
of Nandivarman 1, the donor of Kanu kollu plates(Supra, IV, 34)
(which, wth the exception of the imprecatory verses, are in Prakrit) and the grandson of Hastivarman 1, and
is known from the Kanukollu plates (which are in sanskrit) of his own son, Skanda-varmàn Thus the
mixed Prakrit and sanskrit of his present plates, places him between Nandivarman 1 and Skandavarman.
(Infra IV,38) It is note-
worthy that Hastivarman 2, was already 100 year old in his second regnal year. Thus he mounted the throne at
the age of 98.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXXV.
3. Represented by the Spiral symbol on top of left margin.
Footnote 2.
1. The serial numbers of the plates are engraved in the.left margin of the first side of each plate. The number on the fifth plate seems to have worn out.
The first plate is not numbered.
The passage from appano to nimitte is misplaced. It should properly go with the next sentence beginning
with एतं गामं
1. An a- matra was engraved originally after  but was erased later.
Footnote 3.
1. Sircar devat-attha (tthe) na.
2. sa is incised in the left margin to the left of the ring hole.
3. The metre of the two verses is: श्लोक  अनुष्टुभ
In the second verse better read:        आच्छेत्ता चानुमन्ता च to keep the number of syllables eight as required by the metre.

English Translation of the inscription.
Om !  From the victorious Jayapura.
The village (i.e. the villagers) of Mulukuli in the Kanira district, headed by the Mutuda be addressed at the command of the illustrious  Maharaja Hastivaman, who is hundred year old, and whose is head is covered with the pollen of the lotus that is the feet
of Lord Narayana, For the sake of increasing of virtues, longevity and strength and for our passage to heaven and also for our attainment of religious merit, this village is granted by us as the reward (dakshina) for performing the first kalyana ceremony, to the sixty Bramanas of various gotras and charanas, engaged in penance, recitation of sacred text offering of oblations to gods, observance of vows and religious restraints, who are experts in the vedas, the vedangas, traditional history, Purana, medical science, metrical science and the exposition of texts and who are
also engaged in the six duties of the Brahmanas, namely, offering and supervising sacrifices, study and teaching and Offering and accepting gifts . Therefore, exempt (them) for
the sake of the god (Narayana) the exemptions from all the legal restrictions. Let them enjoy as long as the moon and the stars endure. It is my oral order. Issued on the dark
eighth (the eighth of the dark fortnight) of the month of jyeshtha, in the second regnal year. Drafted under the
Bhadrapada constellation.
Here follow two of the traditional imprecatory and benedictory verses written by the minister Jayasvamin.Footnote
1. The phrase is not clear Sircar translates it as, the Villagers of Mulukuli in Kanira district, headed by
(their) mududa after inserting the word
  ग्रामे after मुलुकुलि by way of emendation. He takes mududa (emended to mutuda) in the sense of headman. Plural ending पमुहा qualifies the next two words, which should also be in plural. Mulakalapal in in Nugur taluk in East Godavari district may represent the ancient Mulukuli grama.


Dharikatura Copper-plate grant of Achandavarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 5, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 35.
Dharikatura Copper-plate grant of Achanda-varman, Regnal Year 35 (Later half of the 4th century A.D.)
These plates comprise salankayana records of Maharaja Achandavarman, in the prakrit language. He was assigned a status of Maharaja 
Some historians are of the opinion that  the status of Achandavarman was Yuvamaharaja & not as a Maharaja. But  
Achandavarman did rule as Maharaja.
Perhaps he might be assisting his father, during early years of his life. This record refers to the gotra and to the tutelary deity of the Salankayana family.  He was succeeded by Skandavarman. In the war of succession for the Vengi throne between Skandavarman and
Nandivarman 2, the latter succeeded to the throne. Salankayana power therefore got diminished due to internal conflicts. .
Provenance: Unknown, The grant was issued from Vengi-pura (Modern 
Pedda-vegi) near Eluru in the West Godavari District, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Late Southern Brahmi of 4th-5th century A.D.
Language Prakrit influenced by sanskrit customary quotations at the end are in sanskrit.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind. XXXVI pp.1-7.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind,. XXXVI, Plate.I, (i-iv).
2. Vengipura has been identified with the modern Pedda-vegi, near Eluru in the west Godavari District of Andhra Pradesh.
3. This figure is engraved in the left margin against line 5.
4. Sircar: इदाणि
5. Engraved in the left margin against line 8.
Footnote 2.
1. Donnampi as also Dharikatura, have not been identified.
2. All these figures indicating the serial numbers of the Plate-faces are incised on the left margin.
3. Agrahara = revenue- free holding granted to Brahmanas for pursuit of religious and academic activities.
Footnote 3.
1. Better read
2. The figure is engraved on the left margin.
3. The full verse is:
Cf. Srirama Kasyapa gotra of Prithvi-maharaja
(See Ep.Ind, XXXV, pp.221ff, Supra, IV, II,L5-6)  Bhemana may have
been one of the pravaras or eminent persons, in the apa go tra to which the donees belonged.
English Translation of the inscription.
L1.1-5: From the victorious city of  Vengipuras — the illustrious Yuvamaharaja Achanda-varman,– who meditates on (or, is favoured by) the feet of Lord chitraratha-svamin, who is devoted to the feet of his lordly father
as if he were a supreme divinity, and who belongs to the salankayana gotra, —orders all the villagers of
Dharikatura en masse.
L1.5-12: Now (the, said village) has been granted by us as an agrahara, having made it to last as long as the moon, the sun and the stars endure, to the (two) brothers, (hailing) from Donnampi, (namely), Bhava-skanda-sarmarya and Bhatti-sarmarya, who are (brahmanas) of Bhemana-Kasayapa gotra, for the increase of our religious merit, longevity, military power, means of transport, wealth and sovereignty and for the increase of good fortune and
success of (our) family and clan.
L1,12-16: Therefore, having known this 
you, the in-charge of the district, should order the collection of the tolls (customary) offerings and free labour for the two donees and their descendants.
Those who cause obstruction and inconvenience  to the donees, shall fall from royal grace. Those who
exempt it (i.e the gifted land) by all the customary exemptions will be given approval (lit. pleasure) by us
L1.17-18: Year thirty five, 35, the sixth fortnight of the rainy season, 6, the third day, 3.
Footnote 4.
1. व्रात = manual labour, Sircar takes the word in the sense of ‘multitude’.
2. According to D.C. Sircar (Ep.Ind, XXXVI, pp.3-4).
Achanda-varman of the present grant is identical with the Maharaja Achanda-varman, mentioned in the Kollair (Tnd.Ant, V, pp.175 ff.) and Pedda-Vegi plates (J.A.H.R.S. I,
pp-92 ff; The Successors of the satavahanas. pp.331f) of Nandi-varman  2, grand son of Nandi-varman 1.
It appears that Nandi-varman 1, ruled for 35 years or more, and in his later years, his eldest son and crown Prince
Achanda-varman ruled on his behalf as the de-facto king.
From his title Maharaja in the Kollair and Pedda-Vegi plates, it is clear that Achanda-varman did rule as king
for a few years. D.C. sircar has reconstructed the Salankayan a genealogy as under:-
1. Devavarman (320-40 A. D.) Year 13 in plates.
2. Hastivarman 1   (340-350 A.D.)
3. Nandivarman 1  (350-390A.D) years 14 and 35 recorded in plate.
4 Achandavarman (390-395 AD.)
5. Hastvarman 2.   (395-400 A.D.)
(Recorded in Plates)
6. Nandivarman       (400-430 A.D.)
 7. Skandavarman    (430-450A.D.)
( Year 7 and 10 recorded in plates)
Of these Hastivarman is identified with the Vaingeyaka Hastivarman, whom samudragupta, in his, Allahabad pillar
inscription (1.20, Fleet C.I.I, III, pp.6 ff) claims to the earlier charters of the Salankayanas, e.g. those of
Devavarman and Nandivarman 1, were Written in Prakrit, while
the later records, e.g. of Nandivarman 2, and Skandavarman, were written in Sanskrit.

Kanukollu Plates of Nandivarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 4, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 34.
Kanukollu Plates of Nandivarman 1,Regnal year 14.
Nandivarman 1, was among the last few of the early Pallava kings. During his reign the Pallava kingdom had experienced the invasion of Kalabhras.
Provenance: Kanukollu, Gudivad taluk, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh.
1. Having misread puto in 1.39 as puna, Krishna Rao missed the full significance of this charter. The executor of this charter was Maharaja Puto Hatthisami i.e. Hastisvamin, the son of the Mahar  aja, who happened to be Nandivarman. The latter made this grant out of a desire for the peace and welfare of the Balaka-Maharajakumara
Khanda-potta, i.e. the baby prince, skanda, the grandson. (see 11.8-9) it means that in his 14th regnal year,
Nandivarman had a son, named Hastin and a baby grandson named skanda. Both the latter occupied the throne in
due course is proved by another charter from Kanukallu (infra 4, 38) & wherein their full names are recorded as Hastivarman and skandavarman, and their gotra or dynastic designation is given as salankayana.
Skandavarman’s Kanukollu charter gives us the name of Nandivarman’s father as Maharaja Sri Hastivarman,
who must be distinguished as Hastivarman 1.
Krishna Rao opines that the salankayanas must have been ruling
in Vengi in the first two centuries of the christian era, first as the subordinates of the Satyavahanas and later of the Ikshvakus and in the second half of the
third century A.D. they appear to have assumed independence. It may have happened either in the reign of Hastivarman 1 or of Nandivarman of the present plates.
Both of them are given war-like epithets in the Kanukollu plates of Skandavarman. It was during the reign of their Predecessor Devavarman, who performed an asvamedha, presumably
by way of declaring his independence. The Vaingeyakka Hastivarman, whom Samudragupta, in his Allahabad  Prasasti (Infra, II, 5)  claims to have captured arad released, has been
identified with the salankayana Hastivarman 1. But
since none of the subsequent salankayans inscriptions,
Including the present one, record their allegiance to the Guptas, it appears, their independent status was not disturbed by samudragupta.
Script: Early Brahmi of the southern class, belonging to 3rd and 4th centuries A D.
Language: Prakrit except for the two customary closing
verses which are in sanskrit.
References: B.V. Krishna Rao, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.1-7.

Footnote 1.
1. The characters of the charter resemble closely those of
the Hirahadagalli (Ep.Ind., I. pp.2 ff and plates Supra, IV, 22, and Mayidavollu (Ibid, VI, pp.84 ff and plates (Supra, IV, 22) The plates of Sivaskandavarman Pallava and the Kondamudi plates of
the Brihatphalayana king Jayavarman (Ibid., pp.315 ff) and plates (Supra IV, 31)  consónants kh, b. p. th and dh resemble the earlier forms found in Bhattiprolu (Ibid, II, pp. 326 ff.
nos.1-3 and plates) and Jagayyapeta ( Archeological Survey. south India.
I, pp.110 f.. nos. 1-3 and Plates. LXlI and LXIII) Inscriptions.
2. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind, XXXI, between pp. 4-5 and 6-7.
3. Serial numbers are inscribed on the left margin on the fist inscribed side of each plate. However, the second
side of the 5th, 6th and 7th plates bear at the same spot, certain symbols. whose significance is not clear.
Second plate first side.
Footnote 2.
1.  Krishna Rao considers Nandivarman as a predecessor of Devavarman, whose Eluru grant (Ep.Ind., XXX pp.170-71) is dated in terms of what he considers a later system, namely that of specified days in the dark or bright fortnights of a month. But Devavarman’s two known grants
Including the Eluru grant, are in Prakrit language, indicating his place either before or near the reign of
Nandi varman 1. But Nandivarman’s two immediate successors
are known from skandavarman’s KanukoIlu grańts ( Supra IV, 38, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp. 7 to 10)
The latter two were probably succeeded by Chandravarman and
Nandivarman 2, known from Pedavegi plates. Hence Devavarman must have preceded Nandivarman 1.
D.C. Sircar assigns his Eluru grant to the middle of the 4th century A.D.
on the grounds of palaeography and language, the records are to be assigned to the same period.
2. Krishna Rao  But 1.29 below in 
is written exactly as here. Mutuda is evidently some sort of village official. cf. modern mottadu used in some
parts of Guntur and Nellore districts in the sense of a village Official or servant supervising the distribution of water or irrigating rain-fed or tank-fed lands.
3. According to D.C. Sircar (Ep.Ind., XXXI, pp.4, n.7) the words
ayoga, pesana and ayoga-pesana are technically used in the sense of service. cf  ayoganiyutta of the Basim plates
(Ep.Ind, XXVI, pp.151) and pesana-ppayutte of Hirahadagalli
plates Ibid. I, pp.1, Supra, III,13, Supra, IV, 22)
Fourth plate first side.
1. I e ” from interference or investigation by state officials.
Fifth Plate Second side.
Footnote 2.
1. अराष्ट्र – संविनयिकं = free from collective
penalties by the state.
2. cf. – अ -खटटा – चोल्लक – वैणेसिकं  ( = Sanskrit. अ -खटवा  – चोल्लक – वैनाशिकं ) 
in the Basim plates of Vindhyasakti 2,  vakataka (I.H.Q,  XVI, 182 ff, XVII, pp.110 ff. Ep.Ind.. XXVI, pp.137 ff, and 
Supra, III,13) and       अ –  कूर – यल्लक – विनेसि – खटटा – वासं 
In Hirahadagalli plates of Sivaskandavarman Pallava
Ep.Ind, I, pp.2-10, II, pp.485 ff. ib.. pp483-85; Supra, IV, 22, L.31) Sanskrit कूर = boiled rice. चोल्लक is not clear. But compare modern Punjabi word जुल्ला used in the sense of a quilt.
Seventh plate first side note the peculiar form of long u matra, which again appears below in the word bhumi in 1.36.
Eighth Plate.
Footnote 3.
1. Maharaja-putra Hastisvamin is identical with Hastivarman
son of Nandivarman and father of Skandavarman, mentioned in the latter’s Kanukollu plates Ep.Ind, XXXI,
 pp.9,  text 1, Infra, IV, 38)
2. Krishna Rao:  पुण. The correct reading was suggested by the editor, D.C. Sircar Ep.Ind,. XXI, pp.6, n.9)
3. Krishna Rao: चेत्य, Again the correct reading is due to Sircar (ibidem)
The phrase is equivalent to Sanskrit
   हूत – प्रग्राहामात्य   meaning, 0fficer in charge of seizure of stolen goods.
4. Chukka is cognate to the hindi word chuk meaning, ‘error, mistake, failing, over sight slip etc. Cf. chukka-skhalita
with Hindi bhul-chuk.
English Translation of the inscription.
  From the victorious (city of) Vengipura. By the command of the glorious Maharaja Nandivarman, who is £favoured by his venerable father, the Mutuda and other villagers in the
village of Pidiha en masse, as well as) all the noble men and high-born Officers commissioned in all the services are to be told. “For the increase of our religious merit longevity and strength in this world, and desiring peace and well-being for my grandson, the baby-prince skanda, I have granted
this village Pidiha with the same, provisions as are applicable to the agrahara, named Rathakara, to chaturvaidya (a resident) of the agrahara Rathakara, who is capable of inflicting curses and conferring boons, and is engaged in austerities and
studies as practised by the Brahmanas of various gotras and charanas. And to that agra-hara, I confer these immunities, not to be entered and not to be meddled with (by the state
officials,not to be dugged for salt, free from collective penalties by the state, free from being requisitioned for quilts (2), boiled rice and bedsteads, (and) for green leaves, vegetables, flowers, fruit, milk, curd, ghee, butter ,oil, lassi
(butter curd) and the like. Exempt this village and cause to be exempted with these immunities and the remaining immunities of all kinds not recorded here through oversight and inadvertence.  Whosoever disregarding this charter, causes obstruction or harrassment to the donees, with him we shall not be happy. And here are the verses.
(Here two of the customary verses quoted.) 
The 1st day of the 2nd month of the rainy season of the 14th (regnal) Year. The executors are the royal prince
Lord Hustin and Kongala’s son, Vara, the officer-in- charge of recovery of stolen property.
Footnote 4
1. From तुष to be pleased, satisfied. लृ ट लकार
2. Kanukolu charter of Nandivarman’s grandson skandavarman (Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.7-10, and infra IV, 38 )
evidently confirming the present grant, to the same donee has the reading रथकार वास्तव्याय चातुव्वैधाय: ( i.e to
chaturvaidya, the resident of Rathakara), which makes it quiet clear that Rathakara was the name of a village.
Krishna Rao takes it in the sense, to the chaturvedin of Rathakara caste. He offers a long explanation and
refers to Macdonell and Keith (Vedic Index, II, pp.265) and Buhler (Sacred Books of the East, XIV, pp. XXXVIII-XXXIX) to prove the high social position of the Rathakaras or carpenters admitted in the
Vedic literature, e.g. the taithiriya Brahmana and the
Baudhayana srauta sutra, such explanation is irrelevant
against the clear testimony of skandavarman’s Kanukollu
charter to the effect that Rathakara was the place or village where the donee lived. Chaturvaidya may refer
to the now well-known class or caste designation of a section of Brahmanas.
But here the reference seems to
be to a particular person, named chaturvaidya, or otherwise recognisable by this term.