History of Agra

Written by Alok Mohan on August 30, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Agra, located in Uttar Pradesh, India, has a rich history dating back centuries. It is generally accepted that Agra was an ancient city from the times of the Mahabharata.

There are few evidences in the form of ancient Inscriptions of the 16 AD available, of existence of Agra city.
For example
Agra Stone-pillar Inscription of Kanishka 1, now kept in the office of the superintending Archaeologist,
Northern Circle, Agra, Uttar Pradesh.
The term Agra was derived from a Sanskrit word, “Agravana” which means grove forest.
The earliest reference for Agra comes from the epical age, when Mahabharata refer Agra as Agravana. In the sources prior to this, Agra has been referred as Arya Griha or the abode of the Aryans.

In the the year 16 of Maharaja Kanishka. On this afore-said date was erected a pillar by a monk, of the Rishtishena
King Kanishka, was a prominent figure in ancient Indian history. He ruled over the vast Kushan Empire during the 2nd century CE. His reign is often celebrated for its cultural and economic significance. Kanishka was a patron of Buddhism and played a key role in promoting the religion across his empire. He is especially known for convening the Fourth Buddhist Council, which aimed to clarify and systematize Buddhist teachings. Under Kanishka’s rule, the Kushan Empire experienced a period of prosperity, fostering trade and cultural exchange along the Silk Road. He developed Agra-vana town & named it Agra, for furthering his trade & cultural activities.
And his efforts resulted in a fusion of various cultures, particularly Hellenistic, Persian, and Indian influences. Kanishka’s reign also witnessed advancements in art, architecture, and coinage, which reflected the multicultural nature of his empire.
Modern History of Agra
According to popular belief  Agra was established by Sikandar Lodi in 1504 AD. Therefore, the city was considered a favorite destination for the mughal empire, also and  it became as the capital of the Mughal Empire (from 1526 to 1658)
So should we blindly believe that there was no human civilization in this present day Agra region, when rulers like Sikandar Lodi and Akbar invaded india? Was Agra just a forest before that ? Or was it just a small village?
Even if it was a small village, then there must be something special about this area that invaders chose and settled in this area during their reign?
There were many more prosperous cities in India where they could go
So it is important to know what was the ancient history of today’s Agra city and how it used to be a prosperous state. In fact, the ancient history of thousands of years of Agra testifies to the glorious past not only of this region but of the entire India.
We must, know that neither any mughal ruler had settled in Agra nor anyone had given it this name.
Rather, the Mughal rulers carried out extensive destroying and plundering Agra several times. In fact, they looted the rich city of Agra, which was centre of trade activities, several times and then occupied it and looted & destroyed many temples here. They Killed many innocent and unarmed women and men and children mercilessly, many buildings of holy and religious importance were either destroyed or converted into mosques..
And one of the major reasons for doing this, here by the Mughal rulers, was that this city was the center of India’s ancient glorious past and was a very prosperous city.
Agra was center of India’s ancient history, glorious past, culturally and religiously.
Had mughals not destroyed the religious buildings, looted the temples and exposed their ruthlessness and their tyrannical system, then it would probably would have become impossible for them to completely control northern India.
Apart from this, according to the another fake historical fact that comes out, is even before Akbar, the Mughal ruler Sikandar Lodi, who is considered the first Sultan of the Delhi Sultanate, had also visited Agra and got the fort repaired and stayed in this fort. Sikandar Lodi also made Agra his capital and ruled the country from here.
After Sikandar Lodi, his son Ibrahim Lodi took over the throne for nine years and then in 1526 he i.e. Ibrahim Lodi was killed in the first battle of Panipat. During his reign, Ibrahim Lodi got a few mosques constructed at some places here.

So the question arises that even before Akbar, if many other rulers had come here & ruled, then why didn’t they give it their name? Or why was this Agra city not known by his name, earlier?
After all, why is this confusion being spread now that Agra was built by Akbar only?
Actually, people ignored the most important historical facts about Agra which should have been known to all of us that it was most important ancient city of Hindu India.
The earliest reference related to the history of Agra or many mythological, religious facts and evidences related to it can also be seen in the famous book Mahabharata of the Dvarapar era including many major texts of Sanatan Dharma. In which on the basis of facts, the first mention of Agra in history is believed to be from the time of Mahabharata. In which this city was also addressed by the name of Agraban or Agravan in ancient times.
There are some other facts, that suggest that even before these sources, i.e. in Tretayuga, this city existed and at that time this city was called “Arya Griha” which simply means or simply means the abode of the Aryans. .
Apart from this, Agra is also considered among the ancient cities because at some point of time, Maharishi Angira had done penance here. That’s why this place was called by the name of Maharishi Angira. This is the same Maharishi Angira who is considered to be the son of Brahma ji and is also considered equal to Brahma ji in his qualities. Apart from all these facts, there are also some pagodas ( Buddhist temples) of the same era i.e. Tretayuga and Dwar, which were established by the hands of Maharishi Angira and Parshuram. And they are worshiped even today.
As a major evidence, there is also a detailed story about the two Jyotirlingas enshrined in the same temple located in Agra, according to which it is believed that Lord Parshuram and his father Rishi Jamadagni himself established these sacred Shivalingas thousands of years ago. It happened in Treta Yuga.
Evidence of Treta Yuga as well
Apart from this, the ashram of Jamadagni Rishi, the father of Lord Parshuram, which is known as Renuka Dham, is also located at a distance of five to six kilometers from here. And this is the same Renukadham Ashram which is also mentioned in Shrimad Bhagwat Geeta.
While there were many more such prominent and glorious proofs and evidences, in the form of holy buildings and temples, which had almost been abolished.
The ancient city, Agra holds many religious and mythological secrets in its womb. According to Dr. Shri Bhagwan Sharma, Yaksha, Jar, Rudra, Pandav, Madal etc. are some sources on the basis of which the ancient history of Agra can be re-sequenced. Because the names of some localities and villages in Agra district give an idea of archaeological philosophy.
Like- Kaulakha, Jakhauda, Jarauli, Rudramauli, Pinak Hat (Pinahat), Madan (Man) Pur, etc.
Many other proofs, in the form ancient Inscriptions provide evidences that Agra existence thousands of years before Mughals invaded.
The name Sadarvan town situated in Agra district is also the name of Mahabharata period. Singana village named after Shringi Rishi and Runkata named after Renuka, the wife of Yamdagni and mother of Maharishi Parshuram, named after Renukoot etc.,

Apart from all this, many people must also know that according to modern historians the Taj Mahal of Agra was completed about 365 years ago and was completed in the year 1654 during the reign of Mughal ruler and Akbar’s grandson Shah Jahan. But truth is that
Taj Mahal was originally a Hindu temple dedicated to Lord Shiva, called 
“Tejo Mahalaya.”
 Raja Paramardi Dev had built Tejo Mahalaya temple palace in 1212 AD, (presently Taj Mahal). The temple was later inherited by Raja Maan Singh, the then Maharaja of Jaipur. It is understood that the Royal family has evidences to prove that the temple was built by them.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.