Inscriptions of Vishnugupta and Vainyagupta

Written by Alok Mohan on August 25, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Hindu Dharma has a glorious past of Righteous kings, who personified fearlessness and valour. These kings were devoted to Righteousness and were always keen on the all round progress of their people. As per the saying ‘Raja Kalasya Karanam’ meaning the king himself is responsible for the times, the kings abided by Righteousness and hence their people were also happy, prosperous and of good moral conduct. The kings would rule under the direction of their Gurus. They would patronise many artists and would wholeheartedly support the arts. They would never attack others except in self defence even though they were capable of conquering the entire planet on the basis of their spiritual powe. Similarly in the later part of their life, they would hand over the reins of their kingdom volunteerly, to their heirs and would perform spiritual practice further by voluntary acceptance of Vanaprasthasrhram.

The remembrance of such great kings who have created the glorious history of Hindus is an incessant source of inspiration. Every incident in the life of these great heroes is a witness to their brilliant capability. Some special events in the lives of these bright kings have been given ahead to awaken the extinct pride in the minds of Hindus about their religion, nation and culture and also to create a new urge and enthusiasm in them to defend their religion, nation and culture. It is our prayer at the feet of God that Hindus should ready themselves for any type of assault against them by taking a cue from this history.

Vishnugupta was also known as Paramabhagavata and maharajadhiraja in Nalanda seal of Vishnugupta . He was the son and successor of Kumaragupta 3,  who in his turn was the son and successor of Narasimhagupta.

The Kalighat Inscriptions, contained besides Chandragupta 2 coins, those of Narasimhagupta, Kumaragupta III and Visnugupta. His name is clearly based on god Visnu.
Vainyagupta was another one of the lesser known kings of the Gupta dynasty. He is known from the fragmentary clay sealing discovered at Nalanda and the Gunaighar copper plate inscription dated Gupta era 188.
Reign: 543 – 548 CE

Parents: Purugupta

Great-grandparents: Chandragupta II, Dhruvadevi

45 Nalanda Seal of Vishnugupta.
Provenance: Nalanda, Patna district. Bihar.
Script: Late Northern Brahmi of 5th or 6th century A D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: Krishna Deva, Ep.Ind. XXVI, pp. 239, DC. Sircar Sel.Inss., 1, pp.340.

1. From the photograph in Ep.Ind. XXI. The upper part and the left side of the seal are broken away and lost.
2. It is not known whether he ruled before or after Budhagupta (476-494 AD.)
English Translation

L1.1-4 There was Maharajdhiraja Sri Puru gupta,
his son, who meditated on hs feet–
was Manarajadhiraja Sri Narasimhagupta, his Son, who
meditated on his feet was Maharajadhiraja Sri Kumara-gupta his son who meditated on his feet. begotten on Mahadevi was the devout worshipper of Lord Vishnu. Maharajadhiraja Sri Vishnugupta.
(Who issued this seal)

Inscription number 46
Gunaighar Copper Plate Inscription ef Vainyagupta.
Gupta Year 188 ( 507 A.D.)
Provenance: Gunaighar. North west of . of Comilla, Tipperah district,
Bangla Desh.
Script: Late Eastern variety of the Northern Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: D.C. Bhattacharya Ind.Hist. Quart, VI pp53 ff.
M Ghosh, ibid pp – 561. D.C. Sircar Sel.Inss, I, pp – 340 ff.

English Translation of the inscription

L1, Bhattacharya explains हज्जिक as marshy land, on the basis of modern Bengali हाजा in हाजा-शुका =
Floods and draughts le caused by them. प्रावेश्य from प्रवेश = income, revenue, विहार प्रावेश्य = land regarded
as a part of the site of the monastery for the purpose of assessment.
शुन्य -प्रतिकर not yielding any revenue.
Sircar opines तल भूमि = land granted to a religious establishment at the time ef
consecration. (Sel.Inss, I, pp – 345, n.1) and it is the same as तलवृत्ति or तलवाटक (pp. 357 n.5). in other Inscriptions. The common meaning is low-land is quite
apt here as it is surrounded on at least there sides by ditches. विलाल = विल
in Bangla language used in the
sense of a large watery hollow, According Bhattacharya, Sanskrit बिल too, stands for a hole or a pit or a cave
बिल्ल a pit hole or reservoir.
विलाल possibly stands for a merchant class like वर्धकि.
2. गंग. a stream, गान्ग is still used in this sense in Bengal.

L1-1-2 From the Victorious camp full of great ships, elephants and horses, situated at Kripura, Maharsja shri Vainyagupta, who meditates on the feet of lord Mahadeva, being in good health issues a command, wishing good
health to those earning their livelihood at his feet.
L.2-8 Be it known to you that for enhancing the religious merit of my parents and myself, the request of our
liege-servant Maharaja Ruderadatta in the village of Kantedadaka, situated in the Northern Mandla (Division)
eleven patakas of uncultivated land in five plots. are granted by me through (the) copper-charter as an agarhara in absolute possession for providing perpetually perfumes flowers lights incense etc, thrice a day
unto the Lord Buddha in the Projected avalokitesvara – ashram monastery being constructed by that very
( Maharaja Ruderadatta) in the part of- Gopa – for the sake of the buddhist monk Acharya Santideva of Mahayana sect (and which monastery is)
in the possession of the congregation of the monks of the Vaivarttiika subsect of the Mahayana (Buddhism)
propounded by the same very Acharya (i. e. Santideva) and for the Provision of gaments food, beds, Seats , and
for diagnostic and medical requirements of the sick of
the congregation of monks and for effecting repairs of breakages and crack in the monastery.

L1.8-11. Further having understood the true purpose of the scriptures. in respect of pious gifts of land, and enjoined in smritis of rewards in this world and the next (for the maintenance of pious gifts) and
prescribed in the Vedas the smritis and the Itihasasas, (The gifted land) should not be confiscated nor obstruction be caused by future kings (hereby)
they have to accept inconvenience for themselves
And these patakas in this monastery should be preserved for all time out of respect for our word (ana) for
attaining fame and Piousnes (by kings not grudging the religious duty.
L1.11-14 And there are verses sung by venerable vyasa, the son
of Parasvara and the editor of the vadas towards preservation of pious land-gifts.
(Here three customary verses ae quoted).
L1.14-18. In the current year of one hundred and eighty eight, on the twenty fourth day of the month of Pausha by
the executor. the uparik Maharaja and Mahasamanta Sri Vijayasena, who is the High Chamberlain, the Chief
of the elephant force, the Chief Superintendent of five administrative offices, the Chief of the
Account Departments, the Chief of the Security Force Revajjasvamin. (and) the two Bhogikas. (namely) Bhamaba and vatsa, written by Naradatta, the clerk of the Office of Peace and war.
L1.18-20: Where in the first plot of land measuring seven patakas and nine dronavapas. the boundary marks are to the east is the boundary of the agrahara village. Ganeka and the field of the carpenter vishnu to the south is the
field of miduvilala and the field of the royal monastery to the west is one of the fields of the learned
(Surin) Nasirampurna. To the north is the lotus-pond Field of Doshin – similar are the boundaries of the fields of Piyaka and Adityabandhu.
Ll.21-22 Of the second plot measuring twenty eight dronavapas,
the boundaries are to the east is the boundary of the agrahara village, Gunika to the south is the field of pakka-vitala to the west is the field of the royal monastery: to the north is the Field of the physician.
Ll.22-24: Of the third plot measuring twenty three dranavapas.
the boundaries are- to the east. the field of – to the south is the boundary of the field of Nakhaddarcharika, To the west is the field of Jolari, to the north is the field of Nagijodaka
Ll.24-25: The boundary of the fourth field measuring thirty dronavapas is – to the east lies the boundary of the
field of Buddhaka to the south is the field of kalaka, to the west is the boundary of the field of mahipala.

Ll2527 Of the fifth field measuring two patakas less by quarter, the boundaries are to the east ie the field
of Khandeviduggurika, to the south is the fleld of Manibhadras to the west is the boundary of the field of Yajnarata, to the north is the boundary of the village Nadadadaka.
L1. 27-29 The boundary marks of the low-lands belonging to the monastery are to the east, the channel between the two ports of Chudamani and Nagarairi to the south is the
boat-channel connecting the large pond of Ganesvara, to the west is the edge of the fleld of the temple of Pradyumensvara, to the north is the channel leading to the port of Pradamara.
Ll.29-31 Also the boundary marks of the lands attached to this
monastery including those yielding income and those not
doing so and the marshy ( hajjika) and fallow (khila) lands
are to the east the boundary of the Field of the temple of Pradyumensvara to the south is the limi t of the field
of the Buddhist monk Acharya Jitasena who belongs to the monastery: to the west ie the stream Hachata, to the north
is the pond of Danda ()
L 31. The year 188, the 24th day of Pausha.

Footnote 1
1. From Bhattacharya transcript and I.H.Q, VI, plates.
The seal has the figure of a recombent bull to right and the
legend महाराज – श्री – वै (न्य गुप्त स्य )
2. महानौ = a ship note the omission of chariot and addition of Navy among the traditional limbs of armed forces.
3. The Gupta kings before him were all Bhagavatas and invariably
assumed the title. परमभागवत Also Vainyagupta has adopted a new way of proclaiming his faith by the phrase -पादानुध्यात
which hitherto was reserved for expressing devotion to ancestors.
4. वैण्यगुप्त In literature, His title on a Nalanda seal is महाराजधीराज which should have been used here. as even his humble servant पाददास Rudradatta too bears
the title महाराज here.

Footnote 2
1. For the 8 lost aksharas sircar suggests the restoration
समवेतान्कुटुम्बिन or
2. The older orthodox school is known as Hinayana or Little Vehicle. As Buddhism grew into Mahayana, their pantheon of gods increased steadily.
large number of gods and goddesses, such as the fiveDhyani Buddhas derived from the Adi-Buddha and Adi-Prajna,
and numerous Bodhisattvas, one of whom was Avalokitasvara.
3. Subscribing to the doctrine of Vivarattta Seem to have been a sect of the Mahayanikas. They are otherwise unknown.
4. त्रिन्ध्यं is actually meant

Footnote 3
1. पिण्डपात = भिक्षा aims ग्लान – प्रत्यय Diagnosis of ailment and भैषज्य = medicines
dic in
2. Prakritisation of sanskrit स्फुटित
3. A land measure equal to half of a village according to to
Hemachandra. The
Inscription Provides interesting
information regarding the size of the five plots being donated. e.g. I) 7 pataka and 9 dronavapas + ii) 28 Drona + iii) 23 drona + iv) 30 drona. 1+3/4 patakas = total of 11 patakas
Again 8+3/4 patakas,& & 90 dronas = 11 patakas.
That means 2+1/4 patakas= 90 dronavapas
That give us the relation
1 pataka = 40 dronavapas.
Drona is still in use in Bengal.
but it varies greatly according to the length of the measuring rod. which varies from place to place.
Thus in Noakhali District, according to Hanter (Stat. Ac. Beng, VI, pp 301) One drona in Shaista nagar = about 48 acres, in Sandvipa, it is equal to
about 34 ares and in Government estates it is equal to about 25 acres,
but the measuring rod 14, 16 or 22 cubits, Each cubit being
equal to 18 or 20 inches Often the length of the measuring rod is determined by a number of lengths of the hand of a particular person and naturally varies with the hand chosen.
The word pataka survives in the Bengali pada used as an ending of names of lacalities of villages.
4. Sircar suggests the amendation – षेण – स्र्मतौ

Footnote 4
1. Sircar suggests restoration नाप हरेत &
2. May be restored as धर्म चा or
दानं चा
3. Bhattacharya suggest भ्यनुमन्तव्या
4. Seem to have been inadvertently engraved twice.

Footnote 5
महाप्रतीहार = Officer in chief of the troops guarding the Palace gate or a city gate. महापीलूप्रती = Chief of the elephant force.
पीलू means elephant (Arabic) (af. Madinikosha of the 14th century) Such foreign words were introduced in
the Indian administrative vocabulary by foreign invaders like the sakas and arthians, cf. गंजवर = कोषाध्यक्ष
in the Mathura Stone Inscription of the time of Sodasa (supra,Vol I, No.47, l.1).पंचाधिकरणोपरिक = chief superintendent of five administering offices . वाटयुपरिक = Chief officer of the accounts department, पाटी = arithmetic).
पुरपालोपरिक = The chief police officer
of the royal city.
उपरिक = Superior Officer. and सामंत =feudatory chief.
2. This vijayasena has been identified with the one mentioned in the
Mallasarul Inscription. see below.Volume III, No 75, and Ep. Ind XXIII, pp. 159 f.. and sircar Sel.Inss. pp-372 ff., seal and 1.8.
3. Read भोगिकौ च Compounding of कुमारामात्य – रेवज्जस्वामी
with भामह
etc. is not permissible. भोगिक appears to signify some sort of semi-government functionary,
enjoying a land grant in lieu of salary. Actual execution of the order was carried out by the Bhogikas the
Kumaramatya seems to have been only an intermediary link between the Dutaka and the bhogikas.
Read विग्रहाधिकरण सांधि विग्रहाधिकरण- कायस्थ
(Clerk belonging to the Department of Peace and war)

Footnote 6
1. राज विहार = Royal monastery
2. भोग seems to relate to भौगिक and may mean a jagir, दोषी may be a personal name. Sircar likes to equate it with ज्योतिषी
3. गुणेकाग्रहार of 11, 18-19, गुणिकाग्रहार of this line appear to have been identical and represented by the modern township of Gunaighar.
Footnote 7

1. Bengali for a ditch (skt खात) or a water course ..नौ योग = नौ बंधन I e a small harbour
The ditch between the boat parks of chudamani and
Nagarasri or it may mean the ditch between chudamani, and Srinauyoga
2. A siva temple erected by Pradyumns.
Nalanda Fragmentary Seal of Vainyagupta
Provenance: Nalanda, Patna district, Bihar.
Script: Late Northern Brahmi.
References: D C. Sircar Ind.Hist.Quart, XIX, pp 275:
English Translation.
Vainyagupta. His son, loyal in his service.
1. Reproduced from IHQ, – XIX pp 275. There is no plate attached.
2. His title Paramabhagavata, the gupta ending of his ancestor names indicates nis descent from the Imperial Gupta lineage. However in this Gunaighar Inscription, he is given the viruda
of Bhagavan-Mahadev-padamidhyata.
3. तत्पादानुद्धयात Literally means devoted to his feet.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.