ancient indian history

Jirjingi Copper-plate Inscription of Indravarman

Inscription number 41. 

Jirjingi Copper-plate Inscription of Indravarman. Ganga Year 39, (535 A.D.)

The Gangas of Andhra Pradesh are also called  Eastern Gangas, which is a branch of mysore’s Western Gangas. Kumarnava, was the founder of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. He had

migrated from Kolahalapura in Gangabadivishaya (of mysore) to Kalinga along with his four brothers, while his paternal uncle, continued ruling Mysore. He defeated Savara Chief Baladitya & occupied Kalinga country. He was a worshipper of Siva. 

Indravarman 1, whose Jirjingi copper-plate grant was issued in the Ganga year 39, is the first ruler of Eastern Ganga dynasty. He was a powerful ruler, commanding a large number of vassal chiefs. He establishing his capital at Dantapura.

Indravarman is identified with Adhiraja Indra, who defeated the Vishnukundin

king Indrabhattaraka on his elephant Kumuda while mounted on his elephant

Supratika.  He was the first great ruler of the Ganga dynasty and the founder of the Ganga era, which

began in 498 CE This is almost certainly the year he ascended to the Ganga

Provenance: Jirjingi near Tekkali, Srikalkulam District, Andhra Pradesh.

Script: Late Brahmi of the E Northern class.

Language: Sanskrit.

Metre: Vv 1-2 अनुष्टुब  (श्लोक)

Footnote 1.

1. As the feudatories of the Gangas, the  Kadambas of Kalinga, also used this era. Hence some scholars call it the Ganga-kadamba era. It’s commencement is a disputed question The chief evidence for fixing the date of commencement of the Ganga era is the date viz.  शकाब्द ( = ब्दे )  नव शतक सप्त रश मत ( = मिते ) given in the mandasa plates issued in the reign of Ananta-varman. (J.A.H.R.S, V, pp.272f)  and the Santa  Bommali plates issued in 520 Ganga era, in the reign of Devendravarman, son of Anantavaman (ibid.. pp.171 f.). But is emended differently by different scholars. Some take the word as seven Six and read the date as either 976 or as 967, as per astronomic convention. Sircar amends it to and takes tie date as 917 +x A D.,  as the date of Anantavarman. And as hence the date of his son Devendravarman will be saka 917 + x = 995 + x -520 A.D. which is 520 Ganga, according to his own grant.

Thus 995 + x-520 = 475 +X A.D. i.e. the Ganga era started a few Years after 475 A.D. Bhandarkar’s List No.1474

refers to a lunar eclipse on Margasirsa Purnamasi in the Ganga year 128, i.e. 475 + 128+x A.D. = 603 + x A.D. Lunar eclipse on margasirsa Purnima after

603 A.D. occurred in AD. 606. 607. 624, 625, 626 etc

There are also references to solar eclipses in the Ganga years 154, 304, 351 etc. (ibid., Nos.1477, 1432

and 1484 respectively) If Margasirsa-purnima in Ganga

Year 128 is equated th 30th November, 624 A.D., all the other dates are fairly satisfactorily explained. Hence

sirca accepts 496-97 A.D. as the initial year of the Ganga era, and surmises that it started in the first regnal Year of the king Indravarman of the present plates.

Mirashi favours 498 A.D. (Ep.Ind., XXVI, pp.326 ff. and ibid, XXVII,  pp.192) According to him the Ganga era

commenced on the ananta chaitra sudi.1, in the saka year 420 ( 14th March 498 A.D. )

Footnote 2.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXV, facing pp. 286.

2. Symbol for ओम

3. Possibly earlier known as Dantakura, the ancient city of Dantapura, has been identified with Ptolemy’s Paloura,

from Dravidian Pal (tooth)+ ur (city), and with the modern Dantavaktra near Sri-kakulam in Andhra Pradesh.

Digha Nikaya, P.T.S.. pp.235, Mahagovinda suttanta refer

to Dantapura as the capi tal of the Kalingas. It is stated that a stupa over the lower canine tooth of the Buddha was built here, Hence the name.

The tooth was later removed to srilanka.

4. In later records Siva Gokarnesvara on Mahendragiri peak, is mentioned as the tutelary deity of the Eastern

Ganga kings.

Footnote 3.

1. चातुदर्दन्त = एरावत The mount of Indra, who is

the guardian of the eastern quarter.

The reference may be to Indravarman’s struggles with some eastern

power or it may Just be a conventional eulogy.

2. Mostly is used in this record for

3. The Punctuation mark is redundant.

Footnote 4.


1.  त्रिकलिडन्ग is distinct from त्रिलिडन्ग

or Telengana.

Located possibly between Kalinga and south Kosala, this territory originally belonged to somavamsis,

who also styled themselves as Trikalgadhipatis.

Adoption of this title by Indravarman, Kalachuris of chedi and the later Gangas is possibly due to their encroachment into somavamsi tertitory. since,  other equally 

powerful Ganga kings, excepting Vajrahasta 3, do not assume this title, it is not plausible to accept that

Trikalinga is the collective name of eastern, central and western parts of Kalinga, or of Kalinga and Utkala and Kosala or of Kalinga with Kongoda and Utala or Kosala.

It must have been contiguous to Vengi country, whose rulers, the Eastern chalukyas of 10th and 11th centuries

A D. describe their kingdom of vengi as

त्रिकलिडन्ग- सहित  and त्रिकलिडन्गाटवी – युकत 

2. The punctuation mark is not required.

3. Same as modern Jiringi.

4. The mark of punctuation is superfluous.

English Translation of the inscription.

Om Hail From the prosperous city of Dantapura, which vies with the city of gods the glorious Maharaja

Indravarman, Lord of the three Kalingas, all of whose sins, had been shaken off by the pile of religious merit

acquired through constant obeisance to Lord siva, the cause

of the creation, preservation and destruction of the entire world, who is a sun in the firmament of the spotless family, of the Gangas who has his pair of feet made tawny coloured

by the contact with the lustre of brilliant rubies fitted in the crowns of the samanta nripatis and Mandaladhipatis,

Subdued by, edge of his stainless unsheathed sword in the

course of his victories in battles fought, with many four-tusked elephants,

who has his friends. the virtuous, his

relatives and supplicants find relief in the shade of the arbour, as it were, of his enormous wealth obtained by his

unequalled might and exertion, who is devoted to the feet of his

Parents   Issues (the following) order to all the assemblage

householders of the village oE Jijjika belonging to the Vonkhara bhoga.

we have granted this village, after dividing it into equal shares and making it an agrahara, to last as long as

the oceans, the mountains, the moon, the stars and the san do,

and exempting it with all the tax-exemptions- for the

increase of our own religious merit, life, fame and strength as also for the acquisition of religious merit by our parents- to Agnisvamin, son of Rudrasvamin, who belongs to the

Vishnuvriddha gotra and is the scholar of Taittiriya sakha

(of the Yajurveda) and his son, Rudrasvamin. Therefore

accordingly you should attend upon him according to the

usages obtaining heretofore. And exhort the future kings:-

Even having acquired the overlord ship of the round earth, as a consequence of any one of (the three causes, namely

the righteousness, Inheritance and valour, you should preserve

this inherited gift while ruling over this earth. Also

there are two verses:-

(Here follow two customary verses).

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top