Junagarh Rock Inscription

Written by Alok Mohan on July 2, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 135.

Junagarh Rock Inscription of Rudradaman 1- Saka year 72 (150 A D.)
This rock also bears the famous 14 edicts of Asoka and of the Gupta king Skandgupta of the years 136, 137 and 138.
Provenance: At the commencement of the gorge that leads to the valley around Girnar hill near Junagarh, Junagarh district. Gujrat.
Script: Brahmi of early Southern variety
Language: Sanskrit.
References Princep,. J.A.S.B. VII, pp-338 ff. Essays on Indian Antiquities II, pp.57 ff. ; Lassen.
“Zeitschrift fur dię Kunde des Morgenlandes”. IV,. pp 146 ff., Bhau Daji. J.B.B. R. A.S, VII, pp 113 f, 118 f,. 125 f,. Arch. Survey of W. Ind
II, pp128 ff. Bhagwanlal indraji and Buhler, Ind. Ant.. VII, pp.257 ff.; Kielhorn. Ep. Ind.. VIII, pp. 42 ff- Luders List, No. 965: D.C. Sircar Sel.Ins,
SI., I, pp.175-80.

1. From the facsimile in EP-Ind. VIII, Sandhi rules have been irregularly applied in the text.
2. गीरिनगरा (द्वि -पाद-रम) Indraji and Buhler (गीरिनगराद – पि दूरमन्त )Kielhorn The Present city of junagarh represents the ancient Girinagar.
The Sudershan lake vas formed impounding the waters of several rivers by damming the gorge leading
to the Girnar valley.
3. मीढ़ागीरि is used in the sense of adung hill in the Lalitavistara (pp240 1.4 Calcutta) and elsewhere as arrangements made to guard against foul matter or impurities.
4. Indra ji and Buhler: सुर्सष्ट but clear (visurg)
before र्स Points : : नि : as the likely reading.
1. The Urjayatgiri is now known as Girnar hill, Suvarhasikata is now called Sonarekha. The name of Palasini has not survived.
2. Indraji and Buhler र्यमाण
3. उपतल्प an upper story of तल्प Raghuvamsa,
शरणोर्चय is a raised shelter.
4. Read-वेगेन
5. Read विशत्यु
6. Read धन्व
7. Klhorn suggests restoration as दुदर्शंनमासी followed by two or three introductory words of the next sentence.
8. The text has only Obviously, the engraver has missed some letter or letters Kulhorn’s suggestion fits in well with the sentence.
1. Read तस्मिन
2. Read प्रणालया
3. Some Read नो
4. Sircar. समुदिव A straight horizontal erosion line joining both the legs of has given it. the appearance of व Implication seems to be that Rudradaman’s father died before his birth.
5. Read गम्य
6. For: except in battle अन्यत्र संग्रामेभ्य
7 Indra ji and Buhler suggest धृत
8. जनपद can also be treated as one word meaning, mankind. But the intended meaning seems to be **who grants life
to people, repairing to him of their own accord and Protection to those prostrating themselves at his feet.प्रणिपत्ति विशेष
9. Indra ji and Buhler read मृगोरगा

1. Restoration of the damaged text is
Akaravanti = Malwa, Ajara= East. Malva
(Capital Vidisha)
Avanti = West Malwa, (Cap. ujjain).
Ahupa, with capital Mahishmatti (mod. Mahesvara or Mandhata in, the Nimar distt) Anarta = North Kathiawar, (Cap Girinagar) Svabhra on the Svabhramati (mod Sabaramati river) Maru: Desert land in Rajasthan, Sindhu = lower Sindh Sagar, Sauvira= Country of the Lower Indus . Kukura in North Katiavar near
Anarta, Aparanta = the North Konkan. (cap. surparaka)
Araval 1 cf. Moh,.III, 130. 3-4, I, 135, 3-5)
The Yaudheyas lived in the Bijaygarh region of Bharat pur and in Johiyabar on the Sutlej. The Sakas thus
reconquered from the Satavahanas, no fewer then six countries.viz. Akara, Avanti, Anupa, Saurashtra, Kukura
and Aparanta.
2. The Restoration is due to Kielhorn, Buhler proposed (येप्सितावाप्त सर्व ) काम
3. Read पत्या
4. जाथो Was originally engraved.

1. Read निर्वयाजमवज़ित्यावज़ित्य
2. The Kanheri, buddhist tank inscription (Luders list No.994)
mentions the devi of Vashishtputra, sri Satakarni,. Who descended from the Kardamaka kings and was the daughter of a Mahakshatrapa, with the name beginning with Ru apparently
Radharaman). Sircar opines. Devi does not always mean queen. Charu devi wife of a crown prince, is called devi
in the British Museum grant.(Sel.ins, I,p467) It is thus uncertain whether vashishthiputra sri-satakarni, had mountedthe throne before the present record. It could as well have been the latter’s father Gautamiputra Satakarni.
who was twice defeated by Rudradaman, as claimed in this
But this logic is far-fetcned. We know from the Nasik cave Ins. of Vashishthiputra, Pulumavi- Regnal Year 19 that Gautami Putra was in effective control of these countries
and was not known to have lost them when his mother, Gautam Balasari and his Grandson vasishthiputra Pulumavi,
put up this record. .
3. Kielhorn मा (द )
Full phrase may have been वाद. विवादेषु प्राप्त
4. Read रागेण
5. शब्द = grammer अथे गान्धर्व = music न्याय = logic
Political economy or lexicography
5. Conjecturally restored

1. = Liberal,, see Halayudha kosha, II, 210.स्थू ल लक्षो बहु व्ययी

2. कर, बलि= tax often identical with = शुल्क भाग king’s grain share
3. Read कनक
4. Restoration of the last three words, is suggested by Buhler.
The characteristics enumerated are of the vaidarba style
5. Read सत्त्व
6. All but one of the Saka rulers of Kardamaka family, from
Chashtama to Rudra Simha held the title of Mahakshatrapa.
The only exception was Jaya-daman, the father of Rudradaman, who died with the title Kshatrapa only. His reduced rank may have been caused by the loss of considerable table territory
to Gatamiputra satakarni. After reconquering these territories from vasishthniputra pullumavi, Rudradaman seems to have assumed the higher title of Mahakshatrapa. It is evident that the kardamakas had become independent of the Kushana overlords.
7. Sakas by now had became fully integrated in hindu society.
8. Restored conjecturally,. Tne gap requires 11 or 12 syllables (aksharas) to fill.

1. कर = Tax विष्टि = forced, i.e. unpaid, labour =बेगार (Hindi)
प्रणय = benevolence or emergency tax
(of. Arthasastra. v. 11), mod. Priti-dana.
2 Read कोशात
3. Indraji and Buhler सव्र्व नगर
4 Reading is due to D. C. Sircar.
5. मति सचिव = Counsellor.
of Amarkosha
कर्म सचिव = An executive officer. For Amatya-gunas, see line 19 also Junagarh Rock Inscription of Skandagupta
Gupta Years 136, 137 and 138, verses 7 to 10.
6 Read महत्वाद
7. Originally the engraver began an akshara with the matra of e in place of
8. Read सुराष्ट्राणा

English Translation of the inscription
This lake sudarsana from Girinagara ..
of a structure so well Joined as to rival the spur of a mountain,
because all its embankments are strong and forged together without
gaps (lit-joints) in their breadth, length and height with stones, clay
furnished with a natual dam formed by
-and with well laid conduits. overflow drains and arrangements to guard
against foul matter-
by favour like construction. (Ie. reconstruction) etc. (of the
(the dam) three fold and stronger in breadth length, the lake is now greatly enlarged. (11.3-4) In the year seventy two, 72, on the first dark half of the Margasiraha, in the reign of
King Mahakshatrapa Rudradaman, whose name is (lovingly) repeated by elders in the family, who is the son of
King Kshatrapa Lord Jayadaman of sacred memory and the
grandson of king Mabakshatrapa Lord Chashtana of sacred memory.
(11. 5B) This dam even through Proper Precautions (lit. Counter -Measures) were being taken, was uprooted right upto the bottom of the river by the exeessivelly swollen floods of the
rivers, suvarna-sikata, Palasini and othes flowing from the
mount Urjayat on the earth, having become one single ocean as
a result of (an extensive) downpour of the cloud with rocks, trees, bushes and lengths of creepers througn against it and with torn, broken to pieces and scattered by the water churned up by an extremely furious storm resembling the dooms day, and destroying hill tops trees, banks, turrets, upper storeys gates and raised places of shelter. (1.7) All the water having escaped through a breach, four hundred and twenty
cubits long Just as any broad. (and)seventy five cubits deep,
(the lake) resembling a sandy desert. became extremely ugly to look at (1.8-9) for the sake of
was caused to be made by vaisya Pushyagupta, the Provincial
governor of the Maurya king Chandagupta: was adorned with
conduits for Ashoka, tne Maurya, the Yavana king Tushaspha, while
governing(1 9) The extensive dam, with the conduit, seen in that breach caused to be made by him and constructed in the manner worthy of a King
(.16) (the lake)was made loveller to look at, on the entire bank after constructing the dam, in breadth and length, three times and stronger in not too long a time by (spending) a vast
amount of money from his personal treasury, without oppressing
the inhabitants of the towns and country (l-15) by taxes. forced
labour and forced acts of benevalence for (the purpose of)
maintenance of the cows, the Brahmanas and the inhabitants
of the cities and the countryside For a thousand yeas and for
increasing his religious merit and fame by the Manakshatrapa Rudradaman; (1.9) who was approached by People of all castes and Chosen as their lord for Protection because he was distinguished by the Possession of Royal Fortune which had been rising (increasing) without break right from the womb. who made, and
is true to the vow of abstaining from slaying men as long as he
breathed (1. 10) except in battles who Showed compassion,
not failing to deal blows to equal
antagonists mixing him face to face, who grants Protection
and life to people repairing to him of their own accord and
those Prostrating themselves before him (1. 11) who is the
lord of the Provinces of eastern and westen Akaravanti.
and other countries,. gained by his own valour, the towns, Cities and rural Settlements of. which have never before been troubled by robbers. snakes. wild beasts, diseases and the
like, where all the subjects are attached to him, (and) where because of his power are duly attained
the objects of religion wealth and Pleasure: (1.12) who by force destroyed
the yaudheyas, who were in-submissive rendered Proud as they
were having manfested their titles of heroes among all
Kehatriyas, who received praise for having twice
effortlessly defeated Satkarni, the lord of Dakshinapatha,
but not destroying him in consideration of close relationships.
who obtained victory in contests of speech.
Who reinstates deposed kings who by the right raising of his hand (1. 13) has earned a strong attachment for Dharma.
Who has attained great fame by studying and remembering and by
specialisation and application of Grammar economics,
music, logic and other great
sciences. Who
by the management of horses, elephants, and chariots and sword and shield flights etc Whose manoeuvres are swift and Well-exeouted against the opposing armies, who is in the habit of bestowing every day donations,
honors and eschewing disrespectful teatment (1. 14). who is
bounteous whose treasury overflows with an accumulation of gold,
silver, diamonds and Jewels, as a result of rightfully obtained taxes, tolls and duties and kings share of farm Produce, Who is adapt in composing literary works (kavya) in Prose as well as verse liberally adorned in the style
of lucid, short. sweet. variegated and pleasing (or lovely) words. Whose beautiful frame owns the most excellent marks and
signs. Such as weight measurement, helght.voice, gait, complexion vigour and strength etc -15) who has himself
acquired the title, Mahakshatrapas, who has been wreathed with many garlands at the swayamvaras of kinga’ daughters.
(1.17) and when in this matter the Mabakshatrapa’s
Counsellors and executive officers, though fully endowed with
the qualifications of ministers, were averse and lacked
enthusiasm on account of the enormous extent of the breach
(and) rejected the undertaking (1.18) when the People in their
dispair of having the dam rebuilt were loudly lamenting.
(11 1920) it (the undertaking. i.e. Project) was executed by
the minister suvisakha, a Pahlava, son of Kulaipa, who for the
benefit of the inhabitants of the towns and country had been
appointed by the king in this government to rule the whole of
Anarta and suashtra: who by his proper dealings and views in
things temporal (lit. financial) and spiritual increased the
attachment (of the People) who was capable. self-restrained.
not wavering not arrogant. upright (or cultured) (and) not likely to be
bribed. (and) who by his good government increased the spiritual
merit, fame and glory of his master.

1. Pahlava is usually taken to mean a Parthian. But D.C. Sircar. Sel.ins, I,
pp180, n.9. invites our attention to
the similarity of this word with the Pahlavi, the language ot ancient Iran. It may therefore denote A Persian language. Similarly the country of Parada of ancient Sanskrit liteature and Pardene of tne Greeks, may be the same as Partnia or southern Iran.

2. The slightly curved sign stands for the full stop.

1. Kielhorn. Ep.Ind, pp45 translates. Three sections by. and other favours is now in excellent condition.
He seems to have missed the implication of .त्रि – स्कन्ध As made
clear in 1.16
त्री गुण द्रिढ़तर विस्तारायामं सेतुं विधाय
The size and strength of the dam was increased three fold resulting
in great increase of impounded water expressed here in the words.महति उपचये वत्र्तते
2. Kielhorn (op.cit., n.i4) again fails to gasp the underlying idea when he explains the phrase as for these reverend personages the name (of Rudradaman was like another veda
demanding assiduous study and devout veneration etc. All that the phrase conveys is that Rudradaman was the favourite of every senior member of his family, on whose lips, his
name was always Present.

1. Cf. the use of अधि + ष्ठा
in the sense of governing in infra.l.20.
2. Possibly the missing phrase may have been to the effect. वृक्षादींनारोप्य
by planting trees etc. suggests
Kielhorm op.cit. P.49 n.5.

1. According to Manu, VIII, 2, the king should dispense justice (i.e. dharma) raising his right hand.(पाणिमधम्य दक्षिणम)

The phase would mean, “his love of justice’
was manifest when he raised his hand in favour of the right causes. i.e. for giving just decisions.
2. Kielhorn op.cit. pp.48 n.2, takes the entire phrase शब्दार्थ in the sense of Gramar.
3. cf स्फुट मधुर and कांत with Dandins qualities
(gunas) प्रसाद माधुर्य and कान्ति
(Kavyadarsa, I, 45, 51 and 85).

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.