ancient indian history

Kanukollu Plates of Nandivarman

Inscription number 34.
Kanukollu Plates of Nandivarman 1,Regnal year 14.
Nandivarman 1, was among the last few of the early Pallava kings. During his reign the Pallava kingdom had experienced the invasion of Kalabhras.
Provenance: Kanukollu, Gudivad taluk, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh.
1. Having misread puto in 1.39 as puna, Krishna Rao missed the full significance of this charter. The executor of this charter was Maharaja Puto Hatthisami i.e. Hastisvamin, the son of the Mahar  aja, who happened to be Nandivarman. The latter made this grant out of a desire for the peace and welfare of the Balaka-Maharajakumara
Khanda-potta, i.e. the baby prince, skanda, the grandson. (see 11.8-9) it means that in his 14th regnal year,
Nandivarman had a son, named Hastin and a baby grandson named skanda. Both the latter occupied the throne in
due course is proved by another charter from Kanukallu (infra 4, 38) & wherein their full names are recorded as Hastivarman and skandavarman, and their gotra or dynastic designation is given as salankayana.
Skandavarman’s Kanukollu charter gives us the name of Nandivarman’s father as Maharaja Sri Hastivarman,
who must be distinguished as Hastivarman 1.
Krishna Rao opines that the salankayanas must have been ruling
in Vengi in the first two centuries of the christian era, first as the subordinates of the Satyavahanas and later of the Ikshvakus and in the second half of the
third century A.D. they appear to have assumed independence. It may have happened either in the reign of Hastivarman 1 or of Nandivarman of the present plates.
Both of them are given war-like epithets in the Kanukollu plates of Skandavarman. It was during the reign of their Predecessor Devavarman, who performed an asvamedha, presumably
by way of declaring his independence. The Vaingeyakka Hastivarman, whom Samudragupta, in his Allahabad  Prasasti (Infra, II, 5)  claims to have captured arad released, has been
identified with the salankayana Hastivarman 1. But
since none of the subsequent salankayans inscriptions,
Including the present one, record their allegiance to the Guptas, it appears, their independent status was not disturbed by samudragupta.
Script: Early Brahmi of the southern class, belonging to 3rd and 4th centuries A D.
Language: Prakrit except for the two customary closing
verses which are in sanskrit.
References: B.V. Krishna Rao, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.1-7.

Footnote 1.
1. The characters of the charter resemble closely those of
the Hirahadagalli (Ep.Ind., I. pp.2 ff and plates Supra, IV, 22, and Mayidavollu (Ibid, VI, pp.84 ff and plates (Supra, IV, 22) The plates of Sivaskandavarman Pallava and the Kondamudi plates of
the Brihatphalayana king Jayavarman (Ibid., pp.315 ff) and plates (Supra IV, 31)  consónants kh, b. p. th and dh resemble the earlier forms found in Bhattiprolu (Ibid, II, pp. 326 ff.
nos.1-3 and plates) and Jagayyapeta ( Archeological Survey. south India.
I, pp.110 f.. nos. 1-3 and Plates. LXlI and LXIII) Inscriptions.
2. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind, XXXI, between pp. 4-5 and 6-7.
3. Serial numbers are inscribed on the left margin on the fist inscribed side of each plate. However, the second
side of the 5th, 6th and 7th plates bear at the same spot, certain symbols. whose significance is not clear.
Second plate first side.
Footnote 2.
1.  Krishna Rao considers Nandivarman as a predecessor of Devavarman, whose Eluru grant (Ep.Ind., XXX pp.170-71) is dated in terms of what he considers a later system, namely that of specified days in the dark or bright fortnights of a month. But Devavarman’s two known grants
Including the Eluru grant, are in Prakrit language, indicating his place either before or near the reign of
Nandi varman 1. But Nandivarman’s two immediate successors
are known from skandavarman’s KanukoIlu grańts ( Supra IV, 38, Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp. 7 to 10)
The latter two were probably succeeded by Chandravarman and
Nandivarman 2, known from Pedavegi plates. Hence Devavarman must have preceded Nandivarman 1.
D.C. Sircar assigns his Eluru grant to the middle of the 4th century A.D.
on the grounds of palaeography and language, the records are to be assigned to the same period.
2. Krishna Rao  But 1.29 below in 
is written exactly as here. Mutuda is evidently some sort of village official. cf. modern mottadu used in some
parts of Guntur and Nellore districts in the sense of a village Official or servant supervising the distribution of water or irrigating rain-fed or tank-fed lands.
3. According to D.C. Sircar (Ep.Ind., XXXI, pp.4, n.7) the words
ayoga, pesana and ayoga-pesana are technically used in the sense of service. cf  ayoganiyutta of the Basim plates
(Ep.Ind, XXVI, pp.151) and pesana-ppayutte of Hirahadagalli
plates Ibid. I, pp.1, Supra, III,13, Supra, IV, 22)
Fourth plate first side.
1. I e ” from interference or investigation by state officials.
Fifth Plate Second side.
Footnote 2.
1. अराष्ट्र – संविनयिकं = free from collective
penalties by the state.
2. cf. – अ -खटटा – चोल्लक – वैणेसिकं  ( = Sanskrit. अ -खटवा  – चोल्लक – वैनाशिकं ) 
in the Basim plates of Vindhyasakti 2,  vakataka (I.H.Q,  XVI, 182 ff, XVII, pp.110 ff. Ep.Ind.. XXVI, pp.137 ff, and 
Supra, III,13) and       अ –  कूर – यल्लक – विनेसि – खटटा – वासं 
In Hirahadagalli plates of Sivaskandavarman Pallava
Ep.Ind, I, pp.2-10, II, pp.485 ff. ib.. pp483-85; Supra, IV, 22, L.31) Sanskrit कूर = boiled rice. चोल्लक is not clear. But compare modern Punjabi word जुल्ला used in the sense of a quilt.
Seventh plate first side note the peculiar form of long u matra, which again appears below in the word bhumi in 1.36.
Eighth Plate.
Footnote 3.
1. Maharaja-putra Hastisvamin is identical with Hastivarman
son of Nandivarman and father of Skandavarman, mentioned in the latter’s Kanukollu plates Ep.Ind, XXXI,
 pp.9,  text 1, Infra, IV, 38)
2. Krishna Rao:  पुण. The correct reading was suggested by the editor, D.C. Sircar Ep.Ind,. XXI, pp.6, n.9)
3. Krishna Rao: चेत्य, Again the correct reading is due to Sircar (ibidem)
The phrase is equivalent to Sanskrit
   हूत – प्रग्राहामात्य   meaning, 0fficer in charge of seizure of stolen goods.
4. Chukka is cognate to the hindi word chuk meaning, ‘error, mistake, failing, over sight slip etc. Cf. chukka-skhalita
with Hindi bhul-chuk.
English Translation of the inscription.
  From the victorious (city of) Vengipura. By the command of the glorious Maharaja Nandivarman, who is £favoured by his venerable father, the Mutuda and other villagers in the
village of Pidiha en masse, as well as) all the noble men and high-born Officers commissioned in all the services are to be told. “For the increase of our religious merit longevity and strength in this world, and desiring peace and well-being for my grandson, the baby-prince skanda, I have granted
this village Pidiha with the same, provisions as are applicable to the agrahara, named Rathakara, to chaturvaidya (a resident) of the agrahara Rathakara, who is capable of inflicting curses and conferring boons, and is engaged in austerities and
studies as practised by the Brahmanas of various gotras and charanas. And to that agra-hara, I confer these immunities, not to be entered and not to be meddled with (by the state
officials,not to be dugged for salt, free from collective penalties by the state, free from being requisitioned for quilts (2), boiled rice and bedsteads, (and) for green leaves, vegetables, flowers, fruit, milk, curd, ghee, butter ,oil, lassi
(butter curd) and the like. Exempt this village and cause to be exempted with these immunities and the remaining immunities of all kinds not recorded here through oversight and inadvertence.  Whosoever disregarding this charter, causes obstruction or harrassment to the donees, with him we shall not be happy. And here are the verses.
(Here two of the customary verses quoted.) 
The 1st day of the 2nd month of the rainy season of the 14th (regnal) Year. The executors are the royal prince
Lord Hustin and Kongala’s son, Vara, the officer-in- charge of recovery of stolen property.
Footnote 4
1. From तुष to be pleased, satisfied. लृ ट लकार
2. Kanukolu charter of Nandivarman’s grandson skandavarman (Ep.Ind, XXXI, pp.7-10, and infra IV, 38 )
evidently confirming the present grant, to the same donee has the reading रथकार वास्तव्याय चातुव्वैधाय: ( i.e to
chaturvaidya, the resident of Rathakara), which makes it quiet clear that Rathakara was the name of a village.
Krishna Rao takes it in the sense, to the chaturvedin of Rathakara caste. He offers a long explanation and
refers to Macdonell and Keith (Vedic Index, II, pp.265) and Buhler (Sacred Books of the East, XIV, pp. XXXVIII-XXXIX) to prove the high social position of the Rathakaras or carpenters admitted in the
Vedic literature, e.g. the taithiriya Brahmana and the
Baudhayana srauta sutra, such explanation is irrelevant
against the clear testimony of skandavarman’s Kanukollu
charter to the effect that Rathakara was the place or village where the donee lived. Chaturvaidya may refer
to the now well-known class or caste designation of a section of Brahmanas.
But here the reference seems to
be to a particular person, named chaturvaidya, or otherwise recognisable by this term.

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