ancient indian history

Magha Dynasity

Some historians, who had wrongly introduced, Aryan invasion theory & had wrongly quoted Puranas, & had emphasised that the Magas were those Brahmins, whose ancestors came from another  continent, and settled in India. But truth is that according to Rigveda, the Brahmin community had descended from the first seven Brahmin saints (Saptarishi) of the Vedic age, who, according to the Brihadaranyaka Upanishad, were, Vishvamitra, Jamadagni, Bharadwaja, Gautama, Atri, Vasishta and Kashyapa. Entire South Asia had, same culture, same language and was following same vedic religious beliefs ie sanatna dharma. There was no question of any magha invasion as boundaries of bharat were not limited to wagha or attari borders those days,  but were extended to almost entire Asia including Iran Afganistan etc. Maghas were, very much, native hindus. The word Brahmin in-fact means, “Supreme Self”

Some historians attribute “Sun worship process” also, as an alien concept, to prove their funny invasion theory. But the truth is:
The Sun had attracted human attention, since prehistoric times & was worshipped by almost everyone on this planet.. (Till some messengers of God, took birth on this planet & started communicating with God directly & became middle men/messengers of God.

Every now & then we hear of the rise of new prophet or a new guru, who claims his prophet hood. & attracts many followers and offers them his own composition as some or other religious scriptures, since last few centuries.)

Sun has attained an important position among not only hindus but entire man kind, since ancient times. A firm religious belief in Sun for religious and spiritual consciousness has been an important part, by everyone, including maghas, throughout the history of mankind.

Inscription number 124.
The Prayagraj Museum Stone Slab Inscription of Bhadramagha–( saka) Year 87 ( 165 A.D.)
Provenance: A village adjacent to the Fort of Kausambi in Manjhanpur tehsil. Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh.
Script: Early gupta or pre-gupta Brahmi of the Eastern variety.
Language: Prakrit mixed with sanskrit.
References Sten Konow, Ep.Ind.. XXIII, pp.245-48, (numbered a and b)

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIII, facing pp.248.
The slab bearing inscription is rounded at top, and identical in shape with that described by D.R. Sahni (Ep.Ind.. XVIII, pp.160, No III and infra, No. 125.

2. The contents of the inscriptions a, b, are almost identical and the one edited by D. R. Sahni, (op-cit)also appears to be so. The two slabs a and b evidently
were evidently intended to form a seat for the image of the Devi.
Therefore, it is clear that the
slab with the rounded top was to be placed vertically behind the image and the rectangular one below it.
The “a” being the first record, alone begins with the auspicious word svasti. As regards the slab described
by sahni, it appears, this first attempt was found to contain mistakes and therefore, was abandoned after
engraving the first four lines and a new slab (No. a above)was prepared to form the back.

English Translation of the inscription
Hail ! The year eighty seven, 87, (in the reign) of Maharaja Sri Bhadramagha, the third, 3rd, fortnight of the rainy season, the 5th day. On this aforesaid date, the slab for the seat of the Holy Noble Devi (the seat-slab at the pond was put up by Sanika and Shandhaka (the Sister and brother from the same womb, the daughter & son of
Saphara the sadler and (also) of Madgali. (May Dharma be pleased) May religious merit increase.

Inscription number
Kosam Stone-Slab Inscription of Shadramaghha -(saka) Year 87.
Provenance: Hasanabad, Close to the remains of ancient Kausambi, Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh.
Script: Early Gupta or pre-Gupta Brahmi.
Language: Prakrit.
References: Daya Ram Sahni, Ep.Ind., XVIII, pp.160.

From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., VIII, facing pp.160, No. III.
The numeral looks more like 8.
But the year meant was 87, as we know from two other stone slab
inscriptions, bearing inscriptions, most probably identical with the present one, which seems to have been discarded because of some mistakes. The year
here is only in numerals, not in words.
Sahni takes it, to be the Gupta era.
Inscriptions number 126.
Kosam Stone-Slab Fragmentary Inscription of Sivamagha.
Provenance: Kosam, Ancient Kausambi , Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh.
Script Brahmi of the Gupta period.
Languge: Sanskrit
References Daya Ram Sahni, Ep-Ind., XVIII, pp.159. No.II.
English Translation of the inscription

In the year, in the reign of Maharaja, the
Illustrious Sivamagha, in 2nd fortnight of on the first day On this aforesaid day- —– of Dharaka the son of —-, of Devashthira the son of Sankaravala , of Dharaka the son of Samnaka, of Nkra the son of Namdabala, of Dharaka, the son of Samanaka, of Kukka, the
son of Yasabala ——-

1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind, XVIII, Pl-No. II facing p.160.
2. Sahni Varshă pakshe
3. Sahni Dav (ishthaka) sya
4. Sahni kasyu (Da) manaka. Samanaka putrasya, dharskasya, is evidently a repetition.

Inscriptions number 127. Bandhogarh Cave Inscription of Vaisravana.
Provenance: On the left wall of the verandah in Cave number 13,
near Bandhogarh fort. Rewa district, Madaya Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi of the second century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: N.P. Chakravarti, Ep-Ind, XXXI, pp185, XXIII.

1. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind, XXXI, facing pp186 Plate number V,. The engraving is in a very poor state of
preservation and can only be read completely with the help of another identical inscription on a detached rock
found near a nullah not far from Gopalpur (ibid XIX)
English Translation of the inscription
The cave-dwelling was caused to be exavated by King Vaisravana, the son of Maha Senapati_Bhadrabala.
1. Chakravarti opines, If the ruler mentioned in” the present two epigraphs and in another dated the year 107, found near Kosam, is identical, we have to assume that Vaisravana belonged to a collateral branch who succeeded a Magha ruler, his predecessor being perhaps Bhadramagha. He may also be a different ruler belonging only to the
Bandhogarh line. He prefers the latter assumption on the ground that tne Bandhogarh ruler is given, only
the lesser title, Rajan, while the Kausambi ruler Vaisravana, is called Maharaja. This in my view is a
very weak ground or erecting his theory of two different lines of Magha rulers, ruling independently at Kausambi
and at Bandhogarh.

Inscription number 128.
Kosam Stone pillar Inscription of the reign of Vaisravana Saka Year 107.
Provenance: Kosam (Ancient Koshambi) Prayagraj district, Uttar Pradesh, Now in Indian Museum, Calcutta.

1. हर्ष गुप्ता पाठ अपेक्षित है
2. This king of Kausambi region is also known from a record discovered in Rewa district and from coins on
Kosam, which partly Preserve his name (See Allan, Catalogue of the Coins of Ancient India, pp.156-57.
Script Brahmi of the northern class of the second century AD.
Language: Sanskrit and Prakrit mixed.
References: G. Majumdar, Ep.Ind.. XXIV, pp. 146-48.
1. Paleographically this record is akin to the Ginja Inscription of Bhimasena Bandogarh (Sahni Ep-Ind, XVIII, pp159-60, and Kosam Inscription of the maghas, ranging between the year 51 to 139 (See supra I, 116-27) And Vaisravana Bandhogarh cave Inscription, already placed in the group of magha Inscriptions (Volume I-127)
The dates in all the records as also the year 107 of the present Inscription, seem to pertain to the same era, which has been identified with the saka era of 78 AD. This will place the present record in the second century AD.
2. From the facsimile in Ep-Ind facing pp147.
1. Instead of य it seems to be crudely executed स्य, with superscript स् , engraved over the final upward curve of
2. Badarikarama is mentioned in the Tipallatthamiga Jataka, ed. Fausbol, Vol.I, pp.160 and Tittira-Jataka
ib. Vol.III, pp.64, and Samyutta-nikaya, ed P.T.S. Pt III, pp.126. The Buddhist literature also speaks of a Ghoshitarama near Kausambi.
English Translation of the inscription

In (tho reign) of Maharaja Sri Vaisravana, in the year
one hundred and seven, year 107, in the seventh, 7th, fortnight
of summer, on the first, 1st, day of this afore-said (date),
the merchant Magha, a lay desciple free, from greed, passion etc.
the son of Supa a member of the city chambar of cormerce,
(and) the grandson of saurashtra, a
residant of suktimati and a
member of the city chamber of commerce, consecrates an umbrella
in the temple of the Purva- siddas in Badarikarama in honour of
the completely enlightened Lord Dasabala (i.e. the Buddha)
the and father, who is known to the eightfold path. Salutatian to
all the Buddhas.
May virtue increase.
Dasabala is one of the name of Gautama Buddha.
Pitamaha and Samyaksambuddha, titles are applied to him in other inscriptions also (see Mathura inscription of Kanishka, Ep.Ind., XIX, pp.97, and supra,1, 70 ).

Text of the inscriptions

1. सिद्धम् महार जस्य श्री भर्दम
2. यस्य त वत्सर सप्त शीति 80+7
3. य 3 दिवस 5 एतयं पुरू वयम् पल्लान कारस्य (शा ) प (फ )
4. रस्य पुत्रेहि ( मादगली ) पुत्रेहि शनिक य सण्ढ़क ( के ) न च भगव
5. त्या अय्र्याय द ( दे ) वी (य ) अ (आ ) सन पट्टा स्थपित

सिधम् मह राजस्य श्री भर्दम

2. घस्य संवत्सरे 8(80)+7 वर्षा पक्ष 3 दिवस 5
3. करस्य शपरस्य पुत्रेहि मादग (ली )
4. वत्या अर्याय देव वार
1. (महा )रा जस्य श्री शिव मघस्य स वत्सरे
2. पक्षे 2 दिव से प ( प्र ) थमे ए तस्या
3. पूव्र्वाया पुतरस्य ध रकस्य संक
4. देव ( ष्ठि ) रस्य शर्म नक पुत्रस्य धरकस्य( नं ) द वल (बल ) पुत्रस्य
5. करस्य शमनक पुत्रस्य धरकस्य यस वल (बल)पुत्रस्य

1. म (हा) सेनापते ( र ) भद्र बालस्य पुत्रेंन राझ
2. वैश्र् वणेन ई दं लाता गृहं जानित


1(म ) ह र जस्य श्री वैश्रव (शस्य )
2. संवत्सरे सप्तोत्तरशते
3. सं 100+7 ग्र (=ग्री ) ष्म पक्षे सप्त
4. मे 7 दिवसे प्रथमे (1)

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