ancient

Nanda dynasity of Pataliputra

The Arya Mahameghavahana Chedis of Kalinga

IMG_20220512_141201

The Arya Mahameghavahana – Chedis of Kalinga
Hathigumpha Cave Inscription of Kharavala.
Provenance: Udayagiri Hills near Bhubaneshvar, Puri district,
Orissa. Partly in front and partly on the roof of the Hathigumpha cave.
Script : Brahmi of the period from the beginning of Second century B.C. to the end of the first century B.C.
Language : Prakrit resembling Pali.
References: Princep, J.A.S.B.. VI, pp. 1075-91, Pl Cunningham, Corp. Ins. Ind.. I. pp. 27f. 98-101/132 ff and P1.XVIII: R.L. Mitra, Antiquities of orissa, II, pp. 16 ff., Bhagwanlal Indraji. Actes du sixieme Congres International des orientalistes, Pt. III. Sec.2, pp. 152-77; Buhler, Indian Studies, No- III, pp.13g.; J.F. Fleet, J.R.A.S. 1910, pp. 242 ff- 824, Luders’ List No 1345, K.P. Jayaswal, J.P.O.R.S., III, 1917. pp. 425ff. Pl. I; IV, pp-364 f. XIII, pp.221ff. XIV, pp. 150 ff, Sten Konow, Acta Orientalia. I, pp. 12 ff., F.W. Thomas, J.R.A.S. 1922, pp.83f., K.P. Jayaswal and R.D. Banerji, Ep.Ind XX. pp-71 ff.; Pl.V, B.M. Barua Old brahmi Inscriptions, No. 1; Ind. Hist. Quart. XIV. pp.261 ff.; D.C. Sircar, Select.Inss. I pp. 213–21.
Footnote:
1. See Jayaswal and Banerji, Ep.Ind, XX, pp. 73-74, for discussion on the palaeography of the inscription. D.C. Sircar assigns. this inscription to 1st century, is untenable.

Text

1. नमो अरहंतानं (I) नमो सवसिधानं (II) एेरेन महाराजेन महामेपवाहनेन वेति -राज – व सवथनेन पसथ- सुभ-लखनेन चतुरंत-पठित-गुण-उपितेन कलिङ्.गाधिपतिना सिरि
खारवेलेन
2. पंदरत-वसानि सीरि कडार सरीर-वत [T X} कीडिता कुमार कीडिका (II) ततो लेब -रूप-गणना वैवहार-विधि-विसारदेन सवविजावदातेन नववसानि योवरज (प ) सासितं संपुण-चतुवीसति-वसो तदानि वधमान सेसयो वेना-भिविजयो ततिये
3. कलिंग-राज-वसे स -पुरित युगे महारज भिसेचनं पापुनाति
अभिसितमतो च पधमे वसे वात – विहत गोपुर पाकार निवेसनं पटि-संबारयति कलिंग नगरि खिविर सितलं तडाग-पाडियो च बंधापयति सवूयान प(टि) संथवनं च
4. कारयति वन ति साहि सत – सहसेहि पकतियो च रंजयति ।।) दुतिये च वसे अचितविता सातकंनिं पछिम – दिसं हय – गज -नर -रध -बहुलं दंड पठापषति । कन्हवेणां गताय च सेनाय – वित्तासिति असिकनगरं ततिये पुन वसे
5. गंधव-वेद-बुधो दप -नत-गीत-वादित-संदसना हि उसव-समाज-कारापनाहि च [की]डापयति नगरि ( 11 ) तथा चतुर्थ वसे विजाधराधिवासं अ (हो) तपुवं (कलि)ग पुवराज- निविति]] च [निखित-छत ?
6. भिंगारे (हि)त – रतन-सपतिये सर्व-रठिक- भोजके पादे वंदापयति च दानी ते नंदराज-ति-वस-रात-ओ (घा) टितं तनसुलिय वाटा पणाडिं नगरी पवेस [य ] तिसो (गह च नि अ)
मिसितो च ( छठे व से ) (राजसेध संदं सयंतो सवकर वण)
7. अनुगह – अनेकानि सत-सहतानि विसजाति पोर-जानपदं (II) सतमं व वसं (पसा ) सतो वजिरधर स मतुक पद कु म
अठमे च वसे महता सेन गोरधगिरिं
8. धाता पयिता राजगहं उपपीडापयति (1) एतिना कंम पदन [पनादेन] स ( बत) सेन वाहने विपमुचिता मधुरं अपयातो यवन-रा

Footnote 1.

1. From the facsimile in J.B.O.R.S., III, 1917, Pl.I,
2. On the margin near the beginning of 11. 2 and 4-5.
3. The title Maharaja is first noticed in India in the numismatic records of the Indo-Greek kings in the first half of the second century B.C. and in the present inscription.
4. Mahamaghavahana is a family name like Satavahana. Such names occur in the Kashmir chronicle.
5. Some read: चेत: चेति = चेदि and चेत ,= चैध Kheravela claimed connection with the Chedis of the epics,
6. Barua: लक्षणेन
7. Barua : गुण – उपेतेन ; Jayaswal.लुठितगुणोषहितेन; Sircar: लुठन – गुण-उपितेन But none of these readings makes any sense.
8. Barua: वधमान – संसयोवनागिविजयो
9. Jayaswal: माहा
10. Jayaswal and Banerji separate खीवीर from कलिंगनगरि and read खीवीर- इसि – ताल – तडाग i.e. the tank of saint khibira

Footnote 2.

1. Jayaswal and Banerji identify this Satakarni with the husband of Naganika (see Ep-Ind. XX. pp.74 ff.) i.e., Sätakarni I of the Puranic lists.
2. Jayaswal and Banerji: कन्ह Identical with modern Krishna, Sanskrit Krishnaveni, the krishnavarna of Rashtrakuta times.
3. Jayaswal and Banerji: वितासितं
4. Jayaswal and Banerji: मुसिक, Asika (Skt. शषिक) = the country between the Krishna and the Godaveri, and to the south of Asmaka. The chief city of that country thus appears to have been located on the Krishna.
5. Vijadhara (=skt. Vidyadhara) seems to be the name of a ruler.
6. Barua: मुकुटे The letters following are indistinct. However, Jayaswal and Banerji read them as सबिलंढ़िते and Barua reads as सबिप्रवजिते
7. This Nanda-raja has been identified with a king of the nanda dynasty of Pataliputra and the phrase ति वस सत
gives the sense of 300 or 103 years. But the palaeography of the record places it 300 years after the Nanda kings. Moreover the Nanda dynasty was supplanted by Chandragupta in 326 B.C. and 103 years after this date will bring us to 223 B.C. we know, Kalinga was under Asoka up to 236 B.C. and possibly of his successors for some more years. That would leave no time for Kharavela’s ancestors at least two in number, to rule there, so the phrase must have been used here in the sense of 300 which may be a round number.

Footnote 3.

1. Jayaswal राजसूर्य which is improbable for the Jain king like Kharavela.
2. वर्ण here means description’ as in line 6 of Nanaghat Cave Ins of Nagamnika.
3. Barua: सतमे च वसे [अ] स-सतो
4. Barua: वजिरघर – खतिय-सत-घटनि-समतक-पदषंन संतिपद
Jayaswal घरवति घुसित घरिनि स मतुक-पद-पुंग……
The readings are doubtful; and the suggestion regarding Kharavela’s wife of the Vajiragara family is problematical. A town Vayiragara of Vajiragara is mentioned by Kulottunga Chola I and the Chalukya-Chola Rajendra Chola II in the Tiruvorriyur “Adhipuresvara temple Inscription and in the Pandava-Pernmal temple Inscription at Kanchipuram.
Jayaswal & Banerji (Ep. Ind., XX, p. 78) identify it with modem Wairagarh in the Chanda district of eastern Madhya Pradesh.
5. Princep and Cunningham सवत – कहदपन – नरप
All the readings are problematical. The account of the achievements of the seventh year is thus doubtful.
6. Princep राजगभं उपपीहयति।
Cunningham राजगंभु उपपीडयति
Indraji राजगहनपं पीडायति which Ston Konow considers possible.
गोरथगीरि – Barabar Hills in Gaya district. The passage can also mean, though less probably, “After having caused the slaughter of (king) Gorathagiri, plundered Rajagriha (his capital) Rajagriha is the same as modern Rajgir in Patna district of Bihar.
7. Princep : पंबात, Jayaswal: संबित सेन, Barua : पबंत.

Footnote 4.

8. (ज) (डिमित) (य ) छ (ति ) वि ………हल र्थ
9. कप सबे हप-गज-रथ च सह यति सव-धरावास (परिवरान च अनुगहाय) सव -गहनं च कारयति ब्रहमणानं कृते परिहारं ददाति (11) नवमे च बसे
10. (प्रति तटे राज निवास ) महा विजय -पासादं कारयति
अठतिसाय सत-सहसेही (II) दसमे च बसे दंड-संधी-सा (म-मयो) ? भरधवस प (ठा ) नं मह जयनं (कारा ) पयति एका दसमे च वसे पायातानं व महनी रतनानि उपभभते

11. ……. पुव -राज-निवेसित । पीधुडं गदभ -नंगलेन कासपति (1)
जन (p) द भावनं च तेरस -वस-सत-कतं भि -दति -त्रमिर -दह (?) संयातं (1) बारसमे च वसे ….. (सह) सेहि वितासयति उतरपद्य-राजानो ……
डडि विद्याल यति
12. भागधानं च विपुलं भवं जनेतो हथसं गंगाय पाययति (1)
नंदराज-नीतं च का (लिं) ग जिनं संनिवेस अंग मगध – वसुं च नयति

13. ….[क] तु [+] जठर -(ल) खिल -[गोपु ) रानि सिंहरानि निवेरायति तत विसि (कनं स ) हसेहि अभुतमछरियं च हथी-निवा[स]
परिसर हष तत-पिसि किन हथि -रतन -(मानिकं ) पंडराजा चे दानि अनेकानि मुत -य नि-रतनानि आहरा पयति इध स ( त सहसानि )

14.सिनो वसी करोति (वि ) रसमे च वसे सुपवत- विजय चके कुंमारी पवते अरहते हि परिवन- (सं सि ) तेहि काय-निसी दियाय
वापूजावकेहि : राज-भितिनि विन वतानि वास (सि ) तानि पूज़ानुरत उवा तग बारवेल सिरिना
जीव-देह -सधि का परिखाता ।

15. ••••सकत-सभण सुविहितानं च सव-दिसानं ञ् (नि नं ? ) तपसि (इ सि न ) (संधि) यनं अरहत-निसोदिया-समीपे पाभारे बराकार – समुया पिताहि अनेकयोजनाहिताहि प….. • • सिलाहि -सिंह-पथ

16. चतरे च वंडुरिय गभे धंमे पतिठायति पान तरीय सत सहसेहि
(I) मु[रि] (=खि) यं कल वो छिनं च चोय [ठि] -अंग
संतिक तुरियं उपादयति (1) खेम-राजा स.वधि-राजा स [भिक्षु ] राजा धम-राजा पसं [तो] सुनं [तो] अनुभव [तो) कलानानि

17. [गुण-विसेस-कुसलो] सव-पासं -पूजको सव -दे (वाय) तन-सकार-कारको अपतिहत-चक वाहनबलो चकधरो गुत-चको पवत -चको राजसि वसू-कुल-पि नि[त्रितो] म हाविजयो राजा खारवेल सिरि
(Branched tree within railing)

Footnote

1. यवन राज is clear, but यवन रा दिमित or डीमित
is doubtful. If the reading is correct, this दिमित must be identified Euthydemo’s Son Demetrius, who flourished in the 2nd century B.C., and led an unsuccessful expedition to Pataliputra (See my North-West India of Second Century B.C., pp. 117ff,. for full discussion of these events and the role of Kherevela.
2. Jayaswal (Ep.Ind. XX. p. 79) and Sircar पलव
3. Barua यंति: Indraji: ; Jayaswal : सह यंते
4. Princep घरवसप Cunningham घर वसय अनतिकगवय
Indraji घरवसधं jayaswal घरावास परिवसने अगिणधिया
5. Princep जत Jayaswal: जातिं परिहारं
Sircar ज (य) Note bra in Brahmananam, not much expected in East Indian records of the second century B.C.
6. Jayaswal: अरहतो (व ) (गि) य (तो )
Sircar अरहत नव मे
7. Barua: वसु विजय (Line 9) ते उभय प्रचि – तटे राज निवासं
Jayswal मानतिराजसंनिवासं
8. Jayaswal : महाविजयं
9. Cunningham: दतिभिसर, The reading is doubtful.
10. Cunningham: महयन
The reading of the tenth and eleventh years is mostly conjectural and extremely doubtful. 

Footnote.

1. Jayswal: गंडं अवराज -निवेसितं Barua: पुव-राज-निवेसितं ‘पिधुडग-दभ नगले नेकास यवि
caused the grassy overgrowth of prithudaka (city), Founded by a former king, to be let out in the Langala river. Sircar: पुवं राज -निवेसितं
2. Jayaswal: सतिकं अभि Possibly it is round number 1300, and not 113.
3. Indraji: तमर देह संघातं Jayaswal: त्रमिर – देष – संघातं .
‘a confederacy of the Tamil countries. In J.B.O.R.S:
4. Barua suggests सिवकानं
5. Jayaswal: हथी सुगंगीय पाययति and finds a reference to the Maurya palace Suganga mentioned in the Mudra Rakshasa.
6. The name may be बृहस्पतिमित्र but his identification with Pustiya mitra on the ground that बृहस्पति is the lord of constallation is not plausible.
बृहस्पतिमित्र may have been one of the eighth sons of pushyamitra, whom according to the Vaya Purana, he made to rule equally i.e with equal powers. (See J.B.O.R.S. X, p.202, XIII, pp 247-48. Also M.V.D. Mohan, North West India, pp149-50. The reference to Anga and Magadha suggests that Bahasatimita was the ruler of both the countries. The
name can also be rendered as बृहत्स्वातिमित्र in Sanskrit.
See also Jayaswal and Banerji Ep.Ind, XX, pp-74-76 for various synchronisations.

1. Jayaswal: प ) रिहा रेहि
2. Princep: हथिनुन ; Cunningham: हथि नवेन Barua: कितव – नाव (तं)
Note, abhutam-achhariam not expected
in very early Prakrit records. Sircar: निवास परिहर Anga comprised parts of Bhagalpur and Munger districts lying south of the Ganga.
3. Barua कयय = Sanskrit कल्य
= Prakrit कल्ल
4. Princep: यापु हवकेहि, Cunningham: यायुजकेहि Jayaswal: यापत्रकेहि
5. Read तिनं
6. Read तानं – Barua correctly connects the word with Pali
चिन्न – वतानं of चीर्ण – व्रत in the Mahabharata, III, 83, 155; 84, 92.
7. Read सितानं
8. Barua: पजाय रत
9. Princep: ज़ि……. देत Cunningham: जिविमक Jayaswal सिरिका Barua suggests
सविका for सिरिका
10. Princep & Cunningham रिखित
Barua suggests पनिजाता

Footnote

1. Jayaswal : सत
2. Cunningham: सिमपुस; Barua: [स] पसि [नं]
3. Prägbhara here means, ‘the slope of a hill’.
4. Barua: पकवसिसहि सत सहसा हि सिलाहि
5. Princep: सपप, Cunningham भगप, Jayaswal सिंहपथ, Barua: सिपज
6. Princep: सपपथ-धरसि धनस्य Jayaswal: सिंधु काय निसया Barua: अभ (नि) वधसयाना (स) नानि
7. Princep: पठलके Indraji पटालके, Jayaswal: पटलको.
8. Princep: रिय Cunningham: य Indraji and Sten Konow मुरिय, Barua: (म ) ज़िय It is definitely मुरिय but must be mistake for मुखिय.
9. Fleet and Indraji: काल, Cunningham: कल, which is supported by Barua.
10. Barua: वोछिने
11. Princep: च चोयथ अगि Cunningham : च चेयठ अगे Indraji; च चोयथ अगे Barua: च चोयठ अगे.
12. Princep: and Cunningham…..सतिक.
Indraji: सतिकु, Sten Konow: सतिकं
13. Barua: वध Jayaswal, Ep.Ind.. XX. V. p.800 and S.I.I वद.

संस्कृत छाया
1. नमः अर्हद्भ्यः । नमः सर्व सिधेभ्य: । आयेण महाराजेन महामेधवाहनेन चेदि राजवंश वर्द्धनेन प्रशस्त शुभ लक्षणेन
चतुरन्त प्रथित गुणोपतेन कलिड – गाघिपतिना
2. पञ्चदशवर्षाणि श्री कडार शरीरवता ( = श्री मत् पिड गल देह भाजा) क्रीडिता कुमार क्रीडिका -( = बाल क्रीड़ा ) ततो तेज रुप गणना व्यवहार विधि-विशारदेन ( = लेखन विद्यायां मुद्रापरिचये गणिते विवाद – मीमांसा विधायां प्रवतर्तना निवतर्तनात्मक – शास्त्रेषु च निष्णसेन सर्व विद्यावदातेन
नव-वर्षाणि योव राज्यं ( = युवराजत्वेन ) प्रशिष्टम्

( =शासितम्) | संपूर्ण-चतुर्विशंति -वर्षः तदानी वर्द्धमाना शैशव – वैन्याभिविजय: (पेण-तनयस्य राजर्षे पृथो इव यस्य जयश्री शेशवात प्रभृति प्रचीयमाना आसीत ) तृतीये
3. कलिड्गराज-वंश-पुरुष -युगे ( = कलिङ्गगराजान्वयस्य तृतीय पुरुषे ) महाराजा- भिषेचनं प्राप्नोति अभिषिक्तवान् च प्रथमे वर्षे वात – विहत- गोपुर-प्राकार-निवेशन प्रतिसंस्कारयति कलिड्ग नगरी खिवीरम शीतल तडागपाल्य:
( = पारान ) च बन्धयति ( =अबन्धयत ) सर्वोयान – प्रति संस्थापन च
4. कारयति ( = आकारयत् ) पञ्च त्रिशता शतसहर्सै मुद्राणां =
= कार्षापणानां प्रकृती: च रञ्जयति = अरञ्जयत द्वितिय च वर्षे अचिन्तयित्वा = अगणयित्वा शातर्कणि
पश्चिम-दिशं हय -गज-नर-रथ-बहुलं दण्डं ( = सेना दलं ) प्रस्थापयति (=प्रास्थापयत् )
कृष्ण-वेण्वा -गतया
( = कृष्णा – नदी -तीर-गतया) च सेन्या वित्रासयति ऋषिक-नगरम् || तृतीये पुनः वर्षे

  • 5. गन्धर्व-वेद-बुध: (खारवेल:) दर्य-नृत्य-गीत-वादित्र-संदशेनें:? उत्सवं -समाज-कारणाभिः च क्रीडति (=अक्रीडयत ) नगरीम् ( = राजधानीम्) || तथा चतुर्थ वर्षे विद्याधराधिवासं अहत-पूर्घ कलिडन्ग -पूर्व राज-निवेशित वितथ मुकुट च निक्षिप्त – छत्र -भृडगारं हृत रत्न समत्तिकं सर्व राष्ट्रिक भोजकं

6. वादौ वन्दयति पञ्चमे च बदानी वर्षे नन्द राज त्रिवर्षसतोदधाटिता ( = त्रिशत वर्षो ) तन सुलिव ( = तृण-सूर्य) वतर्भन
7. नेकानि शत-सहर्साणि {मुद्राणा] विसृजति वौर – जानपदम् (उदिदश्य) सप्तमं च वर्ष प्रशासत ( वज्रगृह वज्रगढ ) अष्टमे च वर्षे महता सेना गोरथगिरि
8. पात वित्या ( =घर्षणानन्तरं ) राजगृहम् उपपीडयति ( = उपापीइयत) एतेन कमपिदान प्रणादेन ( = दुष्कर-कर्म-सम्पादन – शब्देन) सर्वत्र सेना-वाहनं विप्र – मुकतवा ( = विप्रमुच्य) (भयात) मयुरा ( = मयुराम्) अपयात: ( = पलायित: )
यमनराज: डिमित: ..यच्छति… हलार्थ…
9. कल्प वृक्ष हय गज रर्थै सह य़ाति खारवेल:
सर्व-गृहावास परिवाराणा च (अनुगृहाय) •••सर्व -ग्रहणं च कारयति ब्राह्मगाणा कृते-परिहारं ददाति (-अददात्)। … [नवमे च वर्षे ।
10. प्रति तटे राजनिवासं महाविजय प्रासादं कारयति अष्ट त्रिशता
शत सहर्सै (मुद्राणाम् ) दशमे च वर्षे दण्ड- समिमयो भारतवर्ष – प्रस्थानं मही -जयनं कारयति (अकारयत्)। एकादशे च वर्षे….. अपयातानां ( = पलायितानां) शत्रूणां च मणि रत्नानि उपलभते ( = उपा लभत )

11. पूर्व राज निवेशितं ( = कत्यचिद राझ: राजधानी ) पीथुण्डं
ग्रद्धभ लाड गलेन कर्षयात ( = अकर्षयत्) जनपद भावनं च
त्रयोदशा वर्ष कृत ( = वर्ष त्रयोदशात कृतं ) भिनत्ति
( = अभिनत ) तिमिर ह्द

यद्वा त्रमिर-देश- सड घातम् ? दादशे च वर्षे सहसमै:
वित्रासयति उत्तरापथ-राजान….
सहय:
12. भागधानां विपुलं भयं जनयन् हस्त्यश्यं गडगाय़ां
पाययति, | मागधानां व राजानं वृहस्पतिमित्रं पादौ वन्दयतिः नन्दराज-नीतिं च — कलिड ग-ज़िनं सन्निवेश अड ग
मगध-वसुं च नयतिः
13. कत्र्तु” जठर- लक्ष्मील -गोपुराणि (=दृद-सुन्दर- तोरण-रामन्वितानि) शिव राणि निवेशयति मुद्राणां शत विंशकानां सहस्त्रं अद्भुत आश्चर्य च हस्ति निवास परिसर हय हस्ति रत्न माणिक्यं पाण्ड्य-राजात् चेदानीम् अनेकानि मुक्ता-मणि-रत्नानि अहारयति इह शतसहस्राणि
14. वासिन: वशीकरोति । त्रयोdshe च वर्षे सुप्रवृत्त- विजयचक्रे ( = सुप्रतिष्ठित-विजयान्वित शासन-समृद्रे ) कुमारी पर्वत अर्हद्भभय: प्रक्षीण संश्रितेभ्य: (क्षीणा श्रेभ्य:) काय-निषधायै वर्षासु विश्रामाधर्म यापोधापकेभ्य: राजभृतानां
चीर्णव्रतानां (राजपुष्टाना व्रतचारिणाम्) वर्षाश्रितानां
पूजानुरक्तोपासक-आरवेल- श्रिया ज़ीव-देहाश्रयिका: (आश्रय -गुहा : ) परिजानिता।
15. सत्कृत-श्रमण: खारवेल : सुविहितानां च सर्वदिशानां झानिनां निवा तपस्य पृषीणां सड धीयानाम् अहृन्निषधा समीपे प्राग्भारे (पर्वत पृष्ठे) वराकारसमुत्था पिताभि: अनेक योजनाहृताभि: शिलाभि:
16. सिंह पथ चत्वरे च वैदूर्य-गर्भ स्तम्भं प्रतिष्ठापयति पञ्चोत्तरशत

सहस्रे (मुद्राणां ): मुख्य- कलावच्छिन्नं ( = नृत्य-गीतादि-समन्वितं ) च चतु: षष्टयड़ग ( = चतु:- षष्टी प्रकार-वाध-विशिष्टं ) गान्तिकं तौर्य (विग्रह -शून्य-कालानुकूलं तौर्यत्रिकं ) उत्पादयति !
‘क्षेमराज: स वृद्धिराजः त भिक्षुराज: धर्मराज: पश्यन् शुण्वन् अनुभवन् कल्याणानि
17. गुणविशेष -कुशल: सर्व-पार्षद- पूजक: सर्व-देवायतन संस्कार कारक: अप्रतिहत वाहिनी -बल: ( = अप्रतिहत – मण्डल: अप्रतिहत वाहिनी जलवच ) चक्रधर: ( = धृत राजचक्र: सुशासित-चक्र: ) गुप्त चक्र : ( = सुरक्षित मंडल:) प्रवृत्त-चक्र: (अपर्तिहत-शासन: ) राजष्री वसु कुल विनिः सृतः (=चेदिराजोपरिचरवसु ) महा विजय : राजा खारवेलश्री
( = श्रीमान् खारवेल ) ।।

Footnote

1. Jayaswal: चकि
2. Jayaswal: चकधुर
3. Barua: राजिसि-वंस – Cunningham: कुल विनिगत
Kharavela, here lays claim to descent from the ancient Chedi king Uparichara Vasu.
4. For an arhat, see supra, p.25 n.3. The Jain saints are sometimes called Buddha, Revalin, Siddha, Tathagata and Arhat. Kharavela was Jain by faith.
5. This seems to be associated with the name of the family. Aira (= Arya) is found also in Manchapuri Cave Inscription of Vakzadeva (?), infra.No.41, 1. Connecting it with
Ailla = belonging to the lunar dynasty originating from Ila. For Ariya = Ayira =Aira, see Ep.Ind., XXXII, p.84. Cf. the Velpuru inscription of Aira Mänasada ruling over the Guntür region in the second century A. D. See ibid, pp.82 ff.

Footnote
1. The ancient capital, Kalinga nagari which has by now disappeared, lay close to Kalingapatanam on the bay of Bengal, in the Ganjam district of Andhra Pradesh.
2. दप- दर्प- क्रीडा = मल्लयुद्ध विशेषः, (Arthasastra, II.3.58), ओर दव – कम्म i.e , comics (Mahaniddesa, p.379).
3.Literally, राष्ट्रिक = provincial governor and भोजक = Jagirdar. For the Rathika and Bhojaka-tribes of Western India, see Asokas Rock Edicts V and XIII- Jayaswal and Banerji (Ep-Ind XX, p.78) conjecturally identify the Rathikas with Maharathis, the people of the northern districts of Maharashtra, namely, East Khandesh, Nasik, Ahmednagar, Pune and northern Sholapur, and Bhojakas with the Mahabhojas of the Marathi speaking districts of the erstwhile Central Provinces and Berar.

Footnote

1. Rajgir in south Bihar Capital of Magadh till the reign of Ajātasatru.
2. Possibly identical with the ancient Madhya desha.
3. or Presumably identical with Ptolemy’s Pitundra located near Masulipatanam (Suc. Sat., pp.48f.)

Footnote

1. N.W. India, i.e. the country served by the ancient
highway known as the Uttarapatha. The Uttarapatha comprised all the country north-west of the river Yamuna as far as the Hindu Kush mountain. See N.W. India of Second Century B.C., Chapter I.

2. East Bihar. The implication of the sentence seems to be that kharavela avenged the earlier conquests of Kalinga by the Magadha King Nanda and possibly also Asoka.
3. Udayagiri-Khandagiri Hills.

To be continued

The title “Maharaja” is first noticed in India in the numismatic records of the Indo Greek kings in the first half of second century BC.

Mahameghavahana is family name. Similar family names occur in the Kashmir chronical.
Nanda Raja has been identified with a a king of Nanda dynasty of Pataliputra and the phrase ti-vat-st gives the sense of 300 years after the Nanda kings. This is pertinent to mention that Nanda dynasty was supplanted by Chandragupta in 325 BC and 100 years after this date shall bring us to 223 BC. We know Kalinga was under king Ashoka upto 236 BC and possibly bof his successors for a few more years.
That would leave no time for kharavelas ancestors, atleast two in no to rule there. So this phrase must have been used here in the sense of 300 which may be a round number.

The Nanda dynasty ruled in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent during mid of fourth century BCE. Nandas were militarily very powerful and prosperous rulers. The Nandas had overthrown the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Magadha region of eastern India, and expanded their empire to include a larger part of northern India. Ancient sources differ considerably regarding the names & tenure of the Nanda kings, and the duration of their rule, but based on the Buddhist traditions, recorded in the Mahavamsa, they appear to have ruled during mid of fourth century BC

The readings on inscriptions are doubtful.

English Translation of the inscription
1.1
Salutation to the Arhats. Salutation to all the Siddha, .
The noble maharaja Mahamghavana Sri Khravela, the lord of Kalinga, who caused the Chedi royal family to flourish, possessed suspicious marks (on his bady) and qualities renowned to the end of the four quarters.
1.2
For 15 years played children’s games with body rendered dusty brown and charming. Then after having become expert in writing, science of coins (numismatic) mathmatics, law and legislation, in short after having become bright in all the sciences, ruled
for nine years in the capacity of yuvraj. After having completed 24 years, at that moment and with victories growing, ever since childhood, like those of (Prithu) son of Vana, was appointed king. (Received the consecration bath of Royality) as the third
1.3 male ruler in the family of Kalinga. And having been appointed in the first year, repaired the Kalinga city namely khobira, whose gates the fortification, wells, residential buildings had been destroyed by storm. And got constructed the embankments of cool lakes and got all the gardens relaid.
1.4 And pleased the subject by spending thirty five hundred thousand coins, on welfare. I. The second year disregarding Satkarni, despatched a large army of horses, elephants foot and chariot to western quarter.And with his Army having reached the Krishna ana, again in the third year.

1.5 & 1.6 versed in the science of music, he entertained the capital, by organising shows of dances, wrestling, oral and instrumental music and by holding festivities. Then in the fourth year, the Vidyadhara-abode (temple) which was laid out by the former kings of Kalinga, and had never before been damaged and caused all the Rashtrikas
and Bhojaka tribals or Provincial Governers and Jagirdars) to be his feet, false crowns. with their royal umbrellas and golden pitchers felled ( and) with their jewelery and property confiscated. And
now in the fifth year (he) brought to the capital the canal, excavated by king Nanda three centuries earlier
along the route (called) Tanasujiya and having been appointed. in the sixth Year displaying royal wealth.
1.7. He bestowed on the people residing in the cities and
villages many Lacs of coins and favours of all forms and
descriptlons While reigning in the seventh year..
In the eighth year having caused Gorathagiri, to be destroyed by means
of a large army.
1.8. He ransacked Rājagriha Frightened with the reverbarations
of thie glorious act the Greek king. Demetrius fled to Mathura leaving everywhere his army and transport behind. Granted finance for the sake of ploughing.

1.9
And like the wish-tree (kalpavriksha) he Went accompanied by horses elephants and chariots for obliging
the families residing in all the houses and tenements and
caused acceptance of and for the Brāhmanas granted immunities and in the ninth year
1.10 On the opposite bank caused the royal residence called tho great Victory Palace (Mahă Vijay Prasáda) to
be constructed at tha cost of thirty eight hundred thousand
And in the tenth year employing the three sadhanas
namely chastisement, agreement and peace, he caused to
be Performed an invasion o Bharatavarsha and annexation
of territory And in the eleventh year collected the
jewels and valuables of the fleeing enemies.
1.11 He caused to be ploughed with a donkey-driven plough
the Pithunda, Laid by former Kings and he breached tie enbarkments of the Timira lake, the life
support of the country that was constructed thirteen
hundred years earlier. In the twelveth year with thousands of soldiers
he frightens the kings of the uttarapatha.
1.12 And causing great terror among the people of Magadha, made
his elephants and horses drink (water) in the Gangas,
and forces the magadha king Brihaspatimitra, to bow at
his feet. And carries away the (image of) Jina belonging to kalinga which had been carried off by king Nanda,
and wealth of Anga and Magadha.

1.13
He erected towers, strong, graceful and with inbuilt gates at the cost of hundred and twenty thousand (kärashāpanas) for making it and a wonderful and
astonishing enclosure of stockade for quartering elephants,
horses, jewels and
rubies and now from the Pandya king (he) caused to be
brougnt here many hundreds of thousands of pearls, gems
and treasures.
1.14 He brought under control the residents of his kingdom and
during the thirteenth year. when the wheel of his conquests was in excellent revolution (When he had settled down to a well-established and victories
reign) the illustrious kharavela the upãsaka, who loved to worship the Arhats, who under royal support
had completed their vow and were poorly sheltered on the Kumari mountain, got excavated a sheltering cave for the collective residence of the arhats of the Yapodyapaka sect, who were devoid of shelter during rains.
1.15-16
Having honoured the Jaina ascetics (sramana) he caused a pillar laid with beryl to be erected at the cost of a hundred and fiva thousand
Karshapanas in the courtyard on tie mountain slope
near the monks cave of the well-accomplished, learned
and austere Rishis, belonging to the Sangha and hailing from all quarters, with rocks, raised in good shape

and brought from a distance of many yajanas and he produced calm triple symphony consisting of song, dance and Instrumental music complete with sixty four angas and character
by superior art. He is the king of peace, the king of prosperity,
the King of monks, the king of righteousness, who seeing, hearing
experiencing Blessings,
accomplished in extra ordinary virtues, respactor of all sects, repairer of all temples, whose dominions and army
are invincible, a sovereign emperor (chakravarti), with a well protected empire, whose chariot wheels run
unimpeded
(who has universal power) descended from the royal family of the royal sage Vasu, the Great conqueror, the king, of the illustrious Kharavala.

Following important points:-

1 Satkarni is husband of Naganika
2 Knh means Krishna
3 The chief city of the country appears to have been located at Krishna
4 Vijadhara must be the ruler
5 Nand Raja has been identified with a
6 Kharvala here lay claim to the descent from ancient chadi king Uparichara vasu.
7 The Jain saints are sometimes called Buddha, Kevalin, Siddha, Tathagata, Arhat.
8 Kharavala was Jain by faith
9 Mention of Aira is also found on Manchapuri cave inscription of vakradev connecting it with aile belonging to lunar dynasity
10 The ancient capital Kalinga nagari which has now disappeared lay close to kalingapatnam in Andhrapradesh.

11 A town namely Vayiragra is mentioned by Kulcttung Chola 1 & and Chaulikya Chola Rajendra Chola 2 in the Tirruvorryur Adhipuresvars temple and in the Pandava temple at Konchituram.
Another passage can also mean though less probably
“After having caused the slaughter of king Gorathagiri plundered Rajgrih (Modern Rajgir in Patna)

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