Nanda dynasity of Pataliputra

Written by Alok Mohan on May 12, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

The Arya Mahameghavahana Chedis of Kalinga


Hathigumpha Cave inscription of kharavela, Province: Udyagiri Hills near Bhubaneshvar, Puri district, Orissa. Partly in front and partly on the roof of the Hathigumpha cave
Script: Brahmi of the pariod from the beginning of Second
century B.C. to the end of the first century B.C.
Language: Prakrit resembling Pali
The title “Maharaja” is first noticed in India in the numismatic records of the Indo Greek kings in the first half of second century BC.
Mahameghavahana is family name. Similar family names occur in the Kashmir chronical.
Nanda Raja has been identified with a a king of Nanda dynasty of Pataliputra and the phrase ti-vat-st gives the sense of 300 years after the Nanda kings. This is pertinent to mention that Nanda dynasty was supplanted by Chandragupta in 325 BC and 100 years after this date shall bring us to 223 BC. We know Kalinga was under king Ashoka upto 236 BC and possibly bof his successors for a few more years.
That would leave no time for kharavelas ancestors, atleast two in no to rule there. So this phrase must have been used here in the sense of 300 which may be a round number.

The Nanda dynasty ruled in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent during mid of fourth century BCE. Nandas were militarily very powerful and prosperous rulers. The Nandas had overthrown the Shaishunaga dynasty in the Magadha region of eastern India, and expanded their empire to include a larger part of northern India. Ancient sources differ considerably regarding the names & tenure of the Nanda kings, and the duration of their rule, but based on the Buddhist traditions, recorded in the Mahavamsa, they appear to have ruled during mid of fourth century BC

The readings on inscriptions are doubtful.

English Translation of the inscription
Salutation to the Arhats. Salutation to all the Siddha, .
The noble maharaja Mahamghavana Sri Khravela, the lord of Kalinga, who caused the Chedi royal family to flourish, possessed suspicious marks (on his bady) and qualities renowned to the end of the four quarters.
For 15 years played children’s games with body rendered dusty brown and charming. Then after having become expert in writing, science of coins (numismatic) mathmatics, law and legislation, in short after having become bright in all the sciences, ruled
for nine years in the capacity of yuvraj. After having completed 24 years, at that moment and with victories growing, ever since childhood, like those of (Prithu) son of Vana, was appointed king. (Received the consecration bath of Royality) as the third
1.3 male ruler in the family of Kalinga. And having been appointed in the first year, repaired the Kalinga city namely khobira, whose gates the fortification, wells, residential buildings had been destroyed by storm. And got constructed the embankments of cool lakes and got all the gardens relaid.
1.4 And pleased the subject by spending thirty five hundred thousand coins, on welfare. I. The second year disregarding Satkarni, despatched a large army of horses, elephants foot and chariot to western quarter.And with his Army having reached the Krishna ana, again in the third year.

1.5 & 1.6 versed in the science of music, he entertained the capital, by organising shows of dances, wrestling, oral and instrumental music and by holding festivities. Then in the fourth year, the Vidyadhara-abode (temple) which was laid out by the former kings of Kalinga, and had never before been damaged and caused all the Rashtrikas
and Bhojaka tribals or Provincial Governers and Jagirdars) to be his feet, false crowns. with their royal umbrellas and golden pitchers felled ( and) with their jewelery and property confiscated. And
now in the fifth year (he) brought to the capital the canal, excavated by king Nanda three centuries earlier
along the route (called) Tanasujiya and having been appointed. in the sixth Year displaying royal wealth.
1.7. He bestowed on the people residing in the cities and
villages many Lacs of coins and favours of all forms and
descriptlons While reigning in the seventh year..
In the eighth year having caused Gorathagiri, to be destroyed by means
of a large army.
1.8. He ransacked Rājagriha Frightened with the reverbarations
of thie glorious act the Greek king. Demetrius fled to Mathura leaving everywhere his army and transport behind. Granted finance for the sake of ploughing.

And like the wish-tree (kalpavriksha) he Went accompanied by horses elephants and chariots for obliging
the families residing in all the houses and tenements and
caused acceptance of and for the Brāhmanas granted immunities and in the ninth year
1.10 On the opposite bank caused the royal residence called tho great Victory Palace (Mahă Vijay Prasáda) to
be constructed at tha cost of thirty eight hundred thousand
And in the tenth year employing the three sadhanas
namely chastisement, agreement and peace, he caused to
be Performed an invasion o Bharatavarsha and annexation
of territory And in the eleventh year collected the
jewels and valuables of the fleeing enemies.
1.11 He caused to be ploughed with a donkey-driven plough
the Pithunda, Laid by former Kings and he breached tie enbarkments of the Timira lake, the life
support of the country that was constructed thirteen
hundred years earlier. In the twelveth year with thousands of soldiers
he frightens the kings of the uttarapatha.
1.12 And causing great terror among the people of Magadha, made
his elephants and horses drink (water) in the Gangas,
and forces the magadha king Brihaspatimitra, to bow at
his feet. And carries away the (image of) Jina belonging to kalinga which had been carried off by king Nanda,
and wealth of Anga and Magadha.

He erected towers, strong, graceful and with inbuilt gates at the cost of hundred and twenty thousand (kärashāpanas) for making it and a wonderful and
astonishing enclosure of stockade for quartering elephants,
horses, jewels and
rubies and now from the Pandya king (he) caused to be
brougnt here many hundreds of thousands of pearls, gems
and treasures.
1.14 He brought under control the residents of his kingdom and
during the thirteenth year. when the wheel of his conquests was in excellent revolution (When he had settled down to a well-established and victories
reign) the illustrious kharavela the upãsaka, who loved to worship the Arhats, who under royal support
had completed their vow and were poorly sheltered on the Kumari mountain, got excavated a sheltering cave for the collective residence of the arhats of the Yapodyapaka sect, who were devoid of shelter during rains.
Having honoured the Jaina ascetics (sramana) he caused a pillar laid with beryl to be erected at the cost of a hundred and fiva thousand
Karshapanas in the courtyard on tie mountain slope
near the monks cave of the well-accomplished, learned
and austere Rishis, belonging to the Sangha and hailing from all quarters, with rocks, raised in good shape

and brought from a distance of many yajanas and he produced calm triple symphony consisting of song, dance and Instrumental music complete with sixty four angas and character
by superior art. He is the king of peace, the king of prosperity,
the King of monks, the king of righteousness, who seeing, hearing
experiencing Blessings,
accomplished in extra ordinary virtues, respactor of all sects, repairer of all temples, whose dominions and army
are invincible, a sovereign emperor (chakravarti), with a well protected empire, whose chariot wheels run
(who has universal power) descended from the royal family of the royal sage Vasu, the Great conqueror, the king, of the illustrious Kharavala.

Following important points:-

1 Satkarni is husband of Naganika
2 Knh means Krishna
3 The chief city of the country appears to have been located at Krishna
4 Vijadhara must be the ruler
5 Nand Raja has been identified with a
6 Kharvala here lay claim to the descent from ancient chadi king Uparichara vasu.
7 The Jain saints are sometimes called Buddha, Kevalin, Siddha, Tathagata, Arhat.
8 Kharavala was Jain by faith
9 Mention of Aira is also found on Manchapuri cave inscription of vakradev connecting it with aile belonging to lunar dynasity
10 The ancient capital Kalinga nagari which has now disappeared lay close to kalingapatnam in Andhrapradesh.

11 A town namely Vayiragra is mentioned by Kulcttung Chola 1 & and Chaulikya Chola Rajendra Chola 2 in the Tirruvorryur Adhipuresvars temple and in the Pandava temple at Konchituram.
Another passage can also mean though less probably
“After having caused the slaughter of king Gorathagiri plundered Rajgrih (Modern Rajgir in Patna)

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.