ancient indian history

Nasik Cave Inscription

There had been considerable contribution of the Sakas to Indian culture as well as India’s glory. They had mixed and mingled with hindus easily without the assistance of the institution of a fire pit. Their royal families married in the most ancient ard respected Kshatriya and Brahmin families like
the Iksvakus and the Satavahanas. They embraced the local habits and social convictions and christened themselves with hindu names.
We provide names of some saka kings & princes, obtained from Epigraphical records & legend of coins:-
Sivaghosha, Sivadatta, Aryaman, Usvadatta, Rsabhadatta, Rudradaman, Jayadaman, Rudrasena, Rudrasimha,Satyadaman, Viradaman, Yasodaman, Vijaysena, Damajadasri, Prithivisena, Visvasinha, Sanghadaman, Sridharavarman.

Epigraphic evidences also suggest that apart from the guilds of corporations working as banks, banking functions were performed to some extent by other bodies also. An example of such
an investment, has a mention in some of the Inscriptions.
Even the temples and shrines acted as banks receiving permanent deposits to provide out interest, the articles
for worship, specifed by the donors.
The period from fifth century BC to the third witnessed development of guild organisations, which were entrusted with powers of making laws, rules & regulations of business. Taxes paid by these guilds was one of the important sources of revenue generation of the states. Members of the guilds, were also required to render military service or maintain army units, which were allowed to function by the state in case of emergencies.

Inscription number 130.
Nasik cave Inscription of the time of Nahapana
(C 119-24 A.D)
Provenance: Nasik, Nasik district, Maharashtra, On the back
all of the veranda in cave number 10, under the ceiling.

Script: Brahmi
Language: Sanskrit and Prakrit mixed

Text of the inscription
1. सीद्धम राझ : क्षहरातस्य क्षत्रयस्य नहपानस्य जामात्रा दीनीक
पुत्रेंण उषवदातेन त्रि -गो -शत सहर्स-देन नधा बार्णासायां
सुवर्ण – दान – तीर्थे – करेंण देवत भ्य: ब्राहमणेभ्यश्च षोडश
ग्राम देन अनुवर्ष ब्राहमण शत साहसी भोजा पवित्रा
2. प्रभाते पुण्य तीर्थे ब्राहमणेभ्य: अष्ट भार्या प्रदेन भरुकदू दशपुरे गोवर्धने शोर्पारगे च चतुशालावसध प्रतिश्रय प्रदेन
आराम तडाग उदपान करेण इबा पारादा दमण तापी
करबेणा दाहनुका
नावा पुण्य तर करेंण एतासा च नदीनां उभतो तिरं सभा
3. र्पपा करेंण पीड़ीतकावडे गोवर्धने त्रीरश्मीषु पर्वतेषु धर्मात्मना

References: RG Bhandarkar, Transactions of the 2nd (London)
Congress of orient lists, 1874, pp. 326ff. I.A, XI1 pp- 139 ff., Bhagawanlal Indra ji and Buhler.
AS.l India, IV, pp-99 . Indra ji, Bombay,
Gaztteer, XVl, pp.569 ff. Hoernle,, ind.Ant, XIl, pp27. Senart. Ep.Ind, VIII, pp.78 ff .. Number 10,
DC. Sircar Select Inss, 1, pp.167-70. Number 59.
From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. VIII, Plate IV, facing pp.78.
1. The record begins in Sanskrit but gradually relapses intoo Prakrit in mid sentence in 1-3 and simultaneously the
references to the donor àre changed from 3rd to Ist Person and vice-versa. The date is not mentioned. It appears that the donor dictated the matter in a hurry to the engraver and had no time to read and correct the draft.

2. Senart .सिद्धम
3. Presumably the same as the modern Banas, the tributary of the Chambal and flowinc by the cities of Udaipur and Chittorgarh in western Rajasthan.
4. Is located in Kathiawar, Gujrat.
5. Sanskrit Bhrigukachchha modern Broach.
6. Modern Mandasor in western Malwa in Madhya Pradesh; Dasapura in Rajasthan,. according to Buhler. Senart is inclined to search it towards the north rather then in Malwa.

1. Near Nasik, in N.W. Maharashtra.
2. Sanskrit Surparaka, modern Sopara in the Thane district, near Mumbai, Maharashtra.
3. The Parada is identified in the Par in Surat district. The Damana is presumably the Damanganga flowing by the town of Daman on south Gujrat coast. The Tapi, the Tapti.
The Dhannuka may be connected with the town of Dahanu, formerly in Portugese possession. Other rivers are not identified.
4. Pinditakavada and suvarnamukha have not been identified.
5. This Ramatirtha located in Sopara was sacred to Parasuram ,son of Jamdagni, of Mahabharata, III, 85. 42.

तत : शूर्पारकं गच्छे ज्जा मदग्न्य निषेवितम
राम तीर्थे नर : स्नात्वा विन्धादु बहु सुवर्णकम
Another Ramattirtha associated with him was located on the Mahendra mountain, of. Mon III, 85, 16-17.
There were other Ramatirthas sacred to Dasaratha & Ram. eg on the Gomati. (Moh III, 84, 73).
6. Bhagwan lal Indra ji, identified this town with Nargol near Sanjan, in the Thane district, Maharashtra.
7. Trirasmi was the name of the hills in which the caves are found. They were within the ancient district of Govardhana.
1. From here the size of the letter is reduced to almost the half.
2. अ was inserted afterwards.
3. Traces of a few letters are visible after this. Possibly the engraver on discovering the omission of instrumental termination after मालये deliberately erased these
letters and engraved in the following space.
4. The Plural number indicates that the uttamabhadras were a tribe. Their identity is uncertain. Identification
with Uttamadatta of mathura coins (J.N.S.I..VII, pp.26-27) is untenable.
5. A long blank space follows.च Beyond this the size of the letters is very small.
6. This line begins under यो स पितु सतक

in 1.4.

1. पुष्यतर = निशुल्क तरण Compare, Visnu Purana, 3.9 शुल्क-तर
and Agni Purana P.. 223, 25:
2. Charaka in this context does not seem to refer to the followers of the Chapaka-sakha of the Krishna Yajurveda, nor to the wandering students of the Brahmanas and the upanishta. Most Probably the
reference is to the wandering ascetics of other schools
अन्य तीर्थिक चरक परिर्वाजक
mentioned in the Buddhist (e.g Mahavattnu, III 412, and Jain texts)

1. E. Senart. Ep.Ind., VIII, pp.80-81, puts a far-fetched interpretation on the adjective dharmatmana. He asserts
that dhama here is used in the sense of ‘Buddhist religion’, and the Phrase dharmtmana is intentionally put forward, in order to dwell on the fact of a change having taken place in the religious belief or inclination
of title danor Indragni datta. (a mistake for Rishabhadatta).
He claims support for his hypothesis from the fact that “all the donations previously mentioned” in this epigraph
are bestowed without exception on Bramanas or Brahmana institutions, while the gift which our epigraphs
records, and which this part of the sentence introduces, is made in favour of the Budhist monks. The inscription
merely indicates the liberal hindu tradition of kings and
chiefs patronising all religious denominations in their land, whatever their on preferences. In fact miserly
donations offered to the Buddist in contrast to extremely liberal ones for the Branmanas in these inscriptions rather points to the Donors inclination to the Pauranik faith.
Tne chronology of the events described here also suggest that the donor’s faith in Pauranik beliefs was in fact
after excavating the cave rooms for the Buddhist monks.
After doing that he went and Look a holy bath in the Pushkar lake, a Pauranika tirtha, and gifted 100.000 cows and a village to Brahmins. After that he donated a farm worth 4000k to the Bhikshus and put up the present record.
English Translation of the inscription
Success ! Dinika ‘s son Ishavadata, who is the son-in-law of the Kahaharata Kshatrapa King Nahapana, who made a
gift of three hundred thousand cows, who made gifts of gold and got bathing ghats constructed at the river Parnasa,
made a gift of sixteen villages to the gods and Brahmanas, who
causes one-hundred thousand brahmanas to be fed every year.
who gave eight wives to Brahmanas, at the holy thirth of Prabhasa, who at Bharukaccna. Dasapura, Govardhna and Sorparaga donated (for pilgrims) quadrangular rest-houses and shelters, who made pleasure-gardens, tanks and cisterns, who established charitable (i.e. free) ferries by boats on the Iba, Parada, Damana, Tapi. Karabena and Dahanuka, and erected on both banks of these rivers meeting halls and water
distribution sheds, who gave thirty-two thousand stems of coconut trees at the village Nanamgola to the congregation
of Charakas at Pimditakavada, Govardnana, Suvarnaukha, and
the Rama-tirtha at Sorparaga, and at govardhan in the Trirasmi hills, the virtuous person (i.e. Ushavadata) has
caused this cave to be made and these stepwells. And by order of the lord I went to release the chief of the
Uttamabhadras besieged by the Malayas (Malavas ) in the
rainy season and those Malayas fled at tne mere roar (of my approaching armies), and were made all prisoners of
the Uttamabhadra Kshatriyas. Thence I went to Puskara (Tirtha).
There I took a holy bath and gave away three thousand cows and a village. A field was also given, by him bought
at the hands of the Brahmana Asvibhuti, son of varahi, at tne
cost of four thousand (4000) karshapanas, which (field)
belonged to his father. (and) is located on the boundary of the town towards the north-western side- From it food will be procured for all monks, without distinction (ghaturdisasya) dwelling in my cave.

1. Sircar Sel.Inss takes the word as an
equivalent of Sanskrit
meaning well. Senart had earlier translated the word as cisterns evidently asserting it as an equivalent of
But according to philological laws
cannot be traced back to or in
cannot be explained. The word
is used in Punjab (and also western UP
from where the Sakas, of whom the present donor was one. had a
short while before migrated This punjabi word is traceable to Sanskrit changed to
and should mean a flight of steps dug out in the rock face and leading either to water in step-well or to a cave
has been used in
Asvalayana Grihya sutra, Vatana-sutra, Satapatha Br. and Chhandogya Upanishad in the sense of entrance or
access or approach. See Monier-williams Sanskrit-English Dictionary
The plural number used in both
points to the same sense, namely ‘steps’, extended to a step well.
References: 1.
1. Indian Inscriptions Vol 1 by Dr M V D Mohan
2. The sakas in India and their impact on Indian life & culture by Dr V M Mohan

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