ancient indian history

The Bhojas of Goa

The bhojas of Goa.
Inscription number 79.
Bhojas of Goa ruled Konkan and Karnataka from 3rd century AD to the 6th century.  Goa had come under the political sway of the Bhojas who ruled this territory in feudal allegiance to the Mauryan emperor of Pataliputra. The capital of Bhoja kingdom was  Chandrapura (Modern Chandor) in Goa.
Siroda Plates of Devajaja.
Provenance: Siroda de Ponda, Goa.
Script: Archaic variety of the Southern Class of Brahmi, resemblng closely the script of Kondamudi plates
of Jayavarman ( Ep.Ind, VI, pp.315 ff, & Pals) and:resemblng somewhat Mydavolu plates of Pallava
Sivaskandavarman ( ibid, pp84 ff. and Pls.)
Language: Sanskrit interspersed with Prakrit expressions.
References: Pandurango Pissurlencar, o oriente Portugues,
(Portugese language)1934; C.R. Krishnamacharlu, Ep.Ind. XXIV,
The concept of naming Devaraja, was very common in Southeast Asian kingdoms and enabled the monarch to claim his divine authority which was helpful to him for maintaining social and economic order as well as political stability.
Under the influence of the Sanatna dharma scholars many kingdoms adopted the concept of devaraja.
In the Barah inscription of his descendant Mihira Bhoja, Devaraja name appears as Devashakti. Maharajahdhiraja Devaraja was younger son of Nagabhata. He had defeated his enemies and destroyed their kingdoms, and had extend his kingdom towards south-west. He was also able to maintain the territories he had inherited. Devaraja was a devotee of Vishnu. He was married to Bhuyika-devi, and was succeeded by his son Vatsaraja.
Devaraja means that the king was a divine universal ruler and a real manifestation of Bhagawan and was often attributed to Shiva or Vishnu.Footnote 1.
1. This record represents the period of transition from the epoch of Prakrit records to that of the Sanskrit ones.
To this transitional period also belongs the Mattepad plates of Damodaravarman ( Ep.Ind, XVII, pp 327 ff, Infra, III,32)
It should be assigned to the period following the age of the Prakrit charters of the Pallavas. R. B. Krishna
Sastri has ascribed the Mattepad plates to about the 4th century A.D.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXIV, facing pp.145.
3. Expressed by the usual spiral symbol.
4. N.L. Rao corrected the reading गोमिनां  to भोजानां
( Ep.India,  XXVI, pp337 ff)
Second Plate Second Side.
Footnote 2.
1. स्थाम्य is a mistake either for स्थान्य  or  ग्राम्य.   ग्राम्य stands for villagers, in which sense other Inscriptions have the word
ग्रामिक (C I.I., III, pp-112, n.) and ग्रामेयक
(Ep.Ind,. XVII, pp-327) while स्थान्य corresponds to स्थानाधिकरणिका (Ep.Ind,.
III, pp. 323) and स्थानाधिकृता ( ibid.. VI 135 n.) of the other inscriptions. meaning local officials.
2.  According to Pissurlencar (Ep.Ind,. XXIV, pp.145)
Chandrapura is modern chandor off Goa; and Thanniyarka-Kottihkayya is Tanem-Kuttal in Salsette. Jiyaya,
indicating a territorial division. acoording to him, may be represented by Salsette.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om Hail !  From the victorious and prosperous city of Chandrapura. At the command of Devaraja of (the family of) the BHOJAS, the future Bhogikas, Ayuktakas, local officials and others be told:- Whatever income arises from the turn out (i.e Produce) of the village of Thaniyarka-Kottihkayya in the county or division of Jiyaya, or from imports (anitena) to it, has been granted by the
Bhogikamatya Prabhunaga for the increase of his religious
merit to Govinda svamin and Indrasvamin both of bharadvaja
gotra also are granted, a house site and two extensive (atatau) cow – pastures.
Arrangements for herding of cows
(go-prachara) Grass, fuel-wood, etc   should also be properly fixed.
Whosoever whether belonging to our family or an outsider, damages it out of infatuation, hostility, greed
or ignorance, may be joined to the five great sins and the
minor sins and it has been said:-
Here follows two of the customary verses)
Executor of the charter is the very pious and truthful Amaresvara, the Superintendent of all the Departments.
The Plate was written by Prabhakara, the Confidential Secretay
at the command of Devaraja, who is like the king of gods, in the twelfth victorious and prosperous year of the reign, on the twelfth day of the dark fortnight of Magha. May the
bearer, the reader and the listener be blessed.

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