Written by Alok Mohan on October 28, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

This Kura inscription is a Buddhist record, referring to the donation of a Buddhist Vihara, made by Toramana Shahi Jauvla, for the
acceptance of the Congregation of Bhikshus and teachers of Mahisa-saka School.
Toramana Shahi Jauvla, was a king of the Alchon Huns who ruled in North West India, North India and Central India during 5th and early 6th century CE. Toramana carried the title “Maharajdhiraja”
Toramana was succeeded by his son Mihirakula, the last Alchon Hun king.
He was defeated by Yasodharman supported by Gupta emperor Narasimhagupta, at Sondhani in 528 CE..This battle resulted in the loss of Punjab and north India from Alchon possession.
Yashodharman conquered vast territories from the Hunas and the Guptas, although empire short-lived.

Inscription number 44.
Kura stone Inscription of the time of Toramana Shahi ( 500-15 A D.)
Provenance: Kura, Salt Range, West Punjab, Pakistan. Now in Lahore Museum.
Script: Nail-headed variety of Northern Brahmi of Gupta period, i.e. 4th-5th Century AD.
Language: Sanskrit strongly influenced by the Prakit, called the Gatha dialect.
References: Buhler, Ep.Ind, I, pp-238-41.
1. From the Facsimile in Ep.Ind.,I, facing pp.240. “The inscription consisted og thirteen lines of unequal length, the first three of which, have been
seriously injured at both ends, while the right hand portion of the twelfth and the thirteenth seem to have been obliterated by the writer of the original
and to have been partly rewritten ” Buhler, Ep.Ind., I, pp-238.
2. Here one letter presumably was originally engraved and then erased.

1. There is space for four letters, the first of which seems to be च, correct sanskrit would be चतुर्दशे
2. A Syllable is erased here. Possibly it was engraved defectively.
3. A large blank space is left between दे and वातिदेवस्य
4. The Buddha was called दशबल because of his knowledge of ten kinds.
Read gaT
5. A Buddha has four-fold expertise and consciousness, That
i) he has attained omniscience.
ii) that he has he has freed himself from human passion.
iii) That he has rightly described the obstacles of religious life,
(iv) that he has rightly taught the way to obtain salvation.

1. Read : चतु: प्रतिसंभिदाष्टा The foir
Pratisambhidas are the supernatural knowledge of an Arhat, regarding the meaning, the text and the origin of words and the discriminatory knowledge thereof.
2. Read- दशावेणिका. The eighteen Avenikas or Buddha-dharmas, i.e. conditions or attributes of a Buddha are:-
Seeing all things i) past, ii) present
and iii) future; iv) propriety of actions of the body, v) speech and vi) firmness of thoughts; vii) intention, viii) memory, ix) samadhi, x) energy, xi) contemplation and xii) wisdom;
freedom from xiii) fickleness, xiv) noisiness, xv) confusedness, xvi) hastiness, xvii) heedlessness
and xviii) inconsiderateness.
3. Read: प्रमुखे
4. Read प्रतिष्ठापित्त:


1. Read: नश्चीरपति – प्रशास्तोदाह्रित – नामधेय – विशेषवृद्धिना रोट्ट – जयवृद्धे:
2. A merchantile community known as रोड़, रोड़ा अरोड़ा was settled all over western Punjab till 1947, when partition of the country drove them east across the Ravi along with the rest of the
Hindus. Now they have spread all over northern India.
2. Read: आप्यायक
3. Read: दर्शयित्रो: अग्रभाग – प्रत्यंशाय ! अस्तु तथा विहार स्वामिन: रोट्ट – सिद्धवृद्धे सर्वेषां भ्रातृणां
4. Read षाहि जऊव्लस्य
5. Read राजदुहितृणां
6. Between अ and नु two syllabies have been erased.

English Translation of the inscription.
In the prosperous reign of the king of kings, the great king Toramana, the Shahi and Jauvla, in the fourteenth year , on the second (luner day) of the
bright half of the month of Margasiras, the luner – under the constellation propitious for excellent, pure, sharp
meditation, study and reflection on salvation, and which has
been indicated (as this vihara of (i.e. sacred to) the Lord Buddha, the God excelling (other) Gods, freed from
all sin and endowed with all religious merit. one who has himself crossed the ocean of progression of births and deaths and makes the (other) beings do so, who is strong with ten
powers, who has attained the four subjects of confidence,
the four analytical sciences, the eighteen supernatural attributes of a Buddha, who loves all creatures and is most compassionate, has bean erected as a meritorious gift for the
congregation of monks from all quarters, headed by the Buddha,
by Visesha-vriddhi whose name is referred to, in praise by
the lord of Naschira, and who is the virtuous son of Rotta Jayavrddhi the lord of many viharas.
Whatever merit there is in this (act) the chief share of that may accrue to my father and mother, who gave
me strength and nourishment and who showed me the variegated Jambudvipa. Also may it be for the attainment of supreme knowledge by all the brothers, sisters, wives, sons, daughters of Rotta siddha-vriddhi, the lord of the Vihara and all the queens, princes and princesses of Maharaja Toramana shaha Jauvla (and by all beings. Further the benefaction in the form of this Vihara is for the
acceptance of the Congregation of Bhikshus of the four
guarters and of the teachers of Mahisa-saka School. By
the teacher the son of Sadhaka.
Footnote- 5.

1. Read विहारस्योपकार: = benefaction in the form of a monastery
2. Read: परिग्रहाय
3. A letter or two originally engraved between ध and क have been erased. So are three syllables between पु and त्रेंण and one syllable between त्रेंण and आचार्य
It seems, the engraver frequently made mistakes, erased them and proceeded onwards.
4. The thirteenth line seems to have been deliberately defaced. I have accepted above most of the emendations suggested by Sircar in preference to those suggested
by Buhler.
5. Buhler considers जऊव्ल as a tribal name or a biruda. It is connected wi th the turkish word jvl, meaning “A falcon” and was used as a feudatory title.
Toramana is also a Turkish word variously spelt as “toraman, turaman or toremen” meaning a rebel or
Insurgent. Since the epithets shahi and Jauvla have not been used with the names of Toramana of Eran
inscription and toramana of Kashmira mentioned by Kalhana, Buhler and Kielhorn reject the identification
of Toramana shahi Jauvla of this inscription with the latter two. However, I agree with sircar that all the three records refer to one and the same person. We cannot accommodate two Maharajadhiraja of this name in the brief Huna period of Indian history.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.