Bhadrak stone Inscription of Maharaja Gana

Written by Alok Mohan on December 1, 2022. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 1.
(Ancient Indian Inscriptions Volume IV)
Bhadrak stone Inscription of Maharaja Gana. – Regnal Year 8. (The Inscription has been assigned to the 2nd- century A.D.)
This inscription, was discovered from Bhadrak town, of 0rissa, is engraved in Prakrit language. The inscription reveals that the three idols and also eighty measure of land granted by Mulajapa in the regional year 8 of the illustrious Maharaja Gana, were apportioned in a locality called Panda and accepted by the venerable Agisama (Agni Sarman), the Mahakulapati Bhada (Bhadra), (Apavarsha?) Ma hasara (Mahasara), Ghali and Adasama (Atasarman). The Murunda dynasty ruled in the Utkal region of modern Odisha in eastern India during 2nd and 3rd centuries CE. Their territory included parts of the area around the northern districts of coastal Odisha. Murundas appeared to have succeeded the Mahameghavahana dynasty and were thereafter, conquered by the Gupta Empire.
According to some historians Murundas were a foreign tribe and entered India along with Kushanas. Maharaja Gana and Maharaja
Dhamadamadhara, were the two most influential rulers of this dynasty. During
the reign of Dhamadamadhara, it is believed that Kalinga and Funan empires had  strong diplomatic relations as Dhamadamadhara had  married the Funanese princess Soma.
Provenance: Bhadrak town, Balasore district, 0rissa,
Script: Eastern variety of Gupta Brahmi of the second half of the 3rd century A.D.
Language: Prakrit.
References: D.C. Sircar, Ep.Ind., XXXIX,  pp.169-74.
Footnote 1.
1. Not known from any other source, Maharaja Gana, seems to have been an independent ruler of the Utkala country,
between the rivers Vaitarani and Kansai (ancient Kapisa) and lying between the lands of the Vangas and the
Kalingas. The sumandala plates of G.E. 250 (= 569 A.D.)
(see Ep.Ind. XXVIII, pp.79 ff, (Infra IV, L7) show that the Gupta
Suzrainty as acknowledged in Kalinga and presumably also in Utkala. Samudragupta does not claim to have conquered Utkala in his Allahabad Prasasti. Therefore, the annexation
may have been made by Chandragupta 2, after whom no further additions to the empire are claimed by any Gupta
ruler.
2. The stone shaft on which the inscription is engraved is believed, originally, to have been the lintel of the door of a temple.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind., XXIX facing pp.174.
2. The symble which Sircar reads as सिध
is not legible.
3. Sircar data. He has missed the superscript ta, which is visible above the level of the line.
4. Traces of a letter visible before वप are nearer ढ़   than to the last letter of any other of the likely ords, kulyavapa, kharivapa, dronavapa and nalikavapa.
5. दे looks like ज
6. The word could also be read as वय लि.
7. बटित = an apportionment. पडिछिद =✓Pali. patichchhita
accepted) The settlement named पाणिद
has not been identified.

English Translation of the inscription.
Success !  In the regnal year 8 of the illustrious Maharaja Gana.
By mulajapa are given 3 (idols of) gods– – 80 adha vapas (of land). The apportionment (i.e. land apportioned) at Panida is accepted by the venerable Agnisarman, the Mahakulapati.
Bhadra, Apavarsha, Mahasara, ghali,
Atasarman,— residents of —.Kindly note that
1. Kulyavapa, Kharivapa, dronavapa, adhavapa and nalikavapa,
were the measures of land, in which grain measuring kulya
khari drona adha and nalika respectively, could be sown.
2. Klapati designated a sage, who taught and fed ten thousand
Students in his Gurukula or asrama.

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.