ancient indian history

Hermaeus king of Kapisi-Nikaea

Hermaeus. King of Kapisi-Nikaea region in northern Afghanistan 80 to 70 B.C.

Hermaeus means the Saviour was an indo Greek  king of the Eucratid Dynasty, who ruled the territory of Kapisi-Nikaea region.
Hermaeus has been pushed very late by #scholars as there had been nothing common between #Hermaeus and Amyntas.
They have been misled by his square letter-forms, defective
legends and the appearance of his name on the coins of the Kushana ruler, Kedphises. The evidence of letter-forms and defective #legends is vague. At best, it can be used for determining an epoch rather then exact chronology of a ruler.
And it has not been generally
accepted that the Kushana king, Kujula Kadphises, never ruled jointly with Hermaeus. Joint types in their names
were, in fact, issued long after the death of Hermaeus by Kujula Kadphise by way of a political move.
Hermaeus monograms give us a fair idea of his date.
Through these he is associated with Menander, Agathocleia, Strato alone and Diomedes. His monogram
No. 11588 is very common on the coins of Menander
His monogram, No. 114 is found on a joint issue of Strato and Agathocleia as well as on a type of Strato alone.189 His monogram, No. 71 was used on coins by Diomedes , who on similar evidence appears to have been a sub.king of Heliokles. These monograms, however
are rare on #Hermaeus coins. They occur on his solitary Kapist type only. We may. therefore, assume that the
persons represented by them were very old men and died
shortly after his accession. We may roughly fix his reign between 80 and 70 BC. This will give chance to
Menander’s, rather Heliokles mint-men to survive till the early years of Hermaeus reign.
His types “Zeus enthroned” and “Nike connect Hermaeus with Kapist-Nikaea region. He succeeded Antialkidas to the rule of these districts. There is nothing in his coins to connect him with the family of the latter or for that matter with that of Strato. But his successor #Hippostratus portrayed “Apollo tripod” on his coins,
and hence seems to belong to the family of Apollodotus.
Appearance of Heracles on the coins issued in his name by Kujula Kadphises also points to his Euthydemid
affiliations. Thus, it would appear that between Antialkidas and Hermaeus there was some sort of political upheaval that led to the extinction of the family of #Antialkidas. There
is an ephemeral ruler, Peukolaos, who had a short rule as sub-king of Antialkidas in #Kapiśl-Pushkalavatl region. He is known to have issued only two types: one each of
Kapisi and #Pushkalavati. He did not use square letter forms on his coins, and hence must be placed before rather than after Hermacus. His sudden disappearance may have had some connection with the appearance of Hermaeus. It appears that immediately
after the death of Antialkidas, #Sakas under Maues occupied Taxila and advanced north to Pushkalavatl and Kapisi.
They placed Hermaeus, a Euthydemid prince, on the throne of Peukolaos with reduced territories. It was done
possibly as a sop to the troublesome Greek element in these parts or more probably as a political check on the
expansionist ambitions of #Azes, who was already in possession of Seistan and Arachosia.
Hermaeus tried to make his rule acceptable to the
faction of Peukolaos by marrying #Kalliope, a relative of the
last king, and ruling for some time jointly with her. Since there is only one joint type of Hermaeus and Kalliope we
can presume that this arrangement lasted for only for a short while however judging from his coins, Hermaeus’ rule was long and prosperous, but came to an end when the sakas, from bactria, overran most of his Greek kingdom.

1. HERMAE US. – King of Kapisi-Nikaea region in Northern Afghanistan. -80 to 70 B.C.
1. AR.
References : E.J. Rapson, C.H.I. Pl.VII.37. Compare A.K. Narain, Indo-Greeks, Pl.v.3 and J.N.S.I. XVII. 1955, Pt. I, Pl. VIII.5. V.A. Smith, I.M.C. Sec. I. p. 32, no.5, M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p. 191, Pl. IV, 9.
Obv: Draped bust of Hermaeus r. diad. both ends stiffly suspended. L., top r. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ ΣΩΤΗΡΟΣ, below
Rev: Zeus enthroned, holding an unidentified object in outstretched r. hand. To r. mon. 130. Kh. legend,
Maharajasa tratarasa Heramayasa.

2. HERMAS US and KADPHISES. – Issued by the latter long after
Hermaeus death.
A. Taxila Museun.
References: A.S.R., 1914, p.33, no.35; J. Marshall, Taxila,
Pl.242, no.228; M.V. D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p. 192, P. IV, 10.
Obv: Crude bust of Hermaeus z.,. diad., Gk. legend.
Rev: Harakles facing, lion’s skin on 1. arm, in hand a club with lower and resting on ground. Kh. legend, Dhramathidasa Kujula Kasasa (Kushana javugasa).

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