ancient indian history

Kailwan Inscription

114. Kailwan Stone Inscription of the time of Raja Arya-Visakhamitra (Kanishka or saka) Year 108
(186 A D)
Provenance: Kailwan village. Barh Sub-division, Patna district, Bihar.
Script: Brahmi of about lst or 2nd Century AD.
Language: Sanskrit and Prakrit mixed
King Arya-Visakhamitra ruled over Magadha, an important empire of ancient India.
Magadha was one among sixteen mahajanapadas, comprising both kingdoms and republics. Anga, Koshala (Kosala), Avanti and Vriji were the other mahajanapadas geographically close to Magadha, against whom magadha was forced to wage its wars.
Jarasandha, the descendant of Brihadratha, had founded Magadha empire, which is located in Bihar.
Magadha empire had clash of interests with adjoining kingdoms & was therefore subjected to incessant wars. The battle period of Magadh started from the reign of Bimbisara and lasted until the fall of Dhanananda BCE, when the Mauryans took over during 351 BCE. Heavily equipped with chariots, infantry, cavalry and elephants etc, the Magadhan armies under aggressive rulers fought many wars, &
expanded the empire.

References: D.C. sircar. Ep.Ind. XXXI, pp-229-31.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXXI, facing p-231.
2 Sircar reads समा and corrects it to अठमे अ is carelessly traced and appears like स
3 In view of the palaeography of the record and the Chinese and Tibetan tradition of Kanishka”s successful expedition to Pataliputra ( Age af imperial unity page142), thereby
extending Kushan influence to Bihar, Sircar identifies the era used here with the Kanishka or saka era of 78 AD.
The Year 108 of the inscripton would correspond to 186 A D.
The eighth fortnight of Grishma corresponds to the second half af purnimanta Ashadha. Thus our date
may be Saka 108. Ashada-sudi.
5 Arya-visakhamitra was
evidently an independent king of Magdha, and may or may not be connected with other mitra rulers, whose coins of centuries around Christs birth have been found
in this region and also in Panchala and Kausambi. Another King. Bhasatimita (Bhaspati-mitra or Brihatsvati-
mitra) was ruling over Magadha, when King Kharavela of Kalinga, invaded this region (see Hathigumpha inscription
supra Number)
4. Mahanada has been identified with the present Mahna, which runs about 3 Km. from the find spot of the stone vessel. It joins the river Dnova about 9 Km downstream. This Dnova is a branch of the Phalgu, by wnich name this branch appears to have been known then. The urn bearing the
ashes seems to have been consigned at the sangama (confluence) of the two rivers.
5. Sircar translates the phrase as”the vessel- — which is verily associated with his fame and power, is offered
as a present (in the name of) the Mabanadaka and Phalguna dika.
He has obviously missed the significance of the record.
Bhuti here stands for ashes and not power.
Text of the inscription
राझो अर्य विशाखमित्रस्य शवछरे सताठे 100+8, गिम्ह पखे
अठे दिवसे पचमे 5 भगवतो अचरियस्य कुडे उपनिते महनदके फगुन दिके किति भुतिक मित्रा हि कुडे उपनित
भगव तो

संस्कृत छाया
राज्ञ: आर्य विशालमित्रस्य संवत्सरे शताष्टे = अष्टोत्तर : शते १०८ तमे, ग्रीष्म-पक्ष अष्टमे ८ मे, दिवसे पञ्चमे, ५ मे । भगवत: आचायस्य कुप: म् उपनीतं
कीर्ति-भूतिक-मिश्रं हि· कुण्डम् उपनीतं भगवतः ।।

हिन्दी अनुवाद
राजा आर्य विशाख मित्र के (राज्य-काल में ) संवत् एक-सौ आठ. १०८ में, ग्रीष्म ऋतु के अष्टम, पक्ष में पांचवें ५वें दिन भगवान् आचार्य का कुण्ड अर्थात् अस्थि-कलश महानदक
महानदक और फल्गुनदिका में भेट अर्थात् प्रवाहित किया गया। भगवान् की कीर्ति और भस्मावशेष से मिश्रित कुण्ड भेंट किया गया ।

English Translation of the inscription
On the fifth. 5th day. in the eighth, 8th. fortnight, in the year hundred and eight. 108, (in the reign) of King Arya visakhamitra, the urn of the Venerable Acharya (i.e. Teacher) is consigned to the (rivers} Mahanadaka (and)
Phalgunadika. The urn containing the fame and ashes of the Venerable (teacher) has been consigned.

Inscription number 115.
Jankhet Inscription of the time of Virasena-Regnal Year 13 (Most probably the later part of the 3rd century AD-)
Provenance: Vllage Jankhata, Tirwa tehsil, Farukhabad district, Uttar Pradesh.
Script: Pre- Gupta Brahmi showing some features af even as early, a period as Ist century B.C and some
of even Ist and 2nd centuries A. D.
Language: Prakrit influenced by sanskrit
References: E Pargiter, EP.Ind- XI, Pp-85-87.
Text of the inscription
1. स्वा मित विरसेनस
2. संवतसरे 10+3
3. ना पाक्षे 9, दिवसे 8
4. ( स ) वामि स — पिका ओ
5. य —– वत
6. वि ——- ना (य )
7. (रि ) पुन —-न

From the fecsimile in Ep-Ind XI facing p.87.
Pargiter मे
Pargiter (यि) का (वा)
Pargiter एप्रु (स )
Pargiter नि (म )

संस्कृत छाया
स्वामिनः वीरसेनस्य संवत्सरे १३ ग्रीष्मस्य पक्षे ४ दिवसे ८
स्वामी —–

हिन्दी अनुवाद
स्वामी वीरसेन के वर्ष १३. ग्रीष्म ऋतु के पक्ष ४ के दिवस ८ में. स्वामी —–

English Translation of the inscription

In the year 13 of Lora Virasena,
in the fortnight 4, of the hot season on the day (eight) 8, the Lord.

1. Pargiter identified the Svami Virasena of this Inscription with the Virasena, whose coins have been
found from the Gangetic Doab. Rapson described one coin in J.R.A.S- 900, P115 V. Smith described
and figured two in Indian Museum Cat., Calcutta. pp191f.) and conjectures that he ruled in the Gangetic Doab about AD. 300.
Since the date given in regnal years is not co-related to any specific era,
the record can be placed on palaeographic grounds to the later part of the 3rd century A.D.

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