The Kadambas

Written by Alok Mohan on January 22, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

THE KADAMBAS.
Kadambas was a royal family of Karnataka, which ruled northern parts of Karnataka and Konkan.
The founder of Kadamba dynasty was Mayur Varma. He brought tribals under him, attacked the Pallava kingdom and founded the Kadamba dynasty. Banavasi, was the capital of the Kadamba empire.
Around A.D. 540, the Chalukyas of Badami defeated the Kadambas and captured their kingdom.
Inscription number 53.
Chandravalli Stone Inscription of Mayurasarman. (330-60 A.D.)
Provenance: Chandravalli, Chitaldrug (chitradurg) District, Karnataka.
Script: Middle Brahmi of the southern class of the 4th century A.D.
Language: Prakrit.
References: M.H. Krishna, Mysore Archaeological Survey,
A. R, 1929, pp.50, K.P. Jayaswal, History of India, 150-350, pp. 220f, D.C Sircar, Sel.Inss, I,  pp.473-74.
Footnote 1.
1.  From the eye-copy and facsimile in the Mysore Archeological Survey,
AR. 1929. Since the inscription is in a bad state of preservation, the readings are mostly conjectural, and hence doubtful.
2. Between 11.1 and 2 are a representation of the sun, a circle with a centre and the crescent moon.
3. Krishna दुभ
4. Krishna त्रेकुट  but there is no trace of subscript र् in his eye-copy. ड Also looks like ट in तटाकं  in his eye-copy.
5. Krisna: अभीर
Footnote 2.
1. Krishna: पारियात्रिक  
2. न is engraved above the line.
3. Krishna: सयिन्दक
4. Krishna: पुनाट
5. c Tripathi, History of Kanauj, pp.41, n., For the existence  of Mukari, a people or locality on the Ponni or Kaveri.
6. Originally a student of theology, Mayurasarman, carved a kingdom for himself out of the border lands
of the Pallava empire (See Talagunda Inscription of his descendant, Santivarman. (infra. IV, 54)
7. Traikutas or Traikutakas (people of Trikuta), a part of Aparanta (modern North Konkan.) Abhiras,
too, occupied parts of Aparanta about this period.
English Translation of the inscription.
This tank was constructed by Mayurasaman, (a scion)
of the Kadambas, who had beaten the Traikutas, (the people of Traikuta,) the Abhiras, the Pallavas, the people of Pariyatra and of Sakasthana, the Sendrakas and the people
of Punada which is modern Punnadu in southern Kanataka and the
Maukharis.

Footnote 2.
Pariyatra mountain which is western Vindhyas and western
Aravali range. Sakasthana here seems to refer to the kingdom of the western Kshatrapas. The sendrakas ruled
somehere in Andhra Pradesh. Mukaris or Maukhads in this context, should be identified with their, southern
branch, ruling somewhere in Tamil Nadu. Punada which is
modern Pannadu, was located in southen Karnataka.
(See, Succesors of sat, pp.241-46.
The Kadamba genealogy after Mayurasarman, as reconstructed by Kielhorn (Ep.Ind,. VIII, pp.30) is
as follows:
Mayurasarman
Kangavarman
Bhagiratha
Ragha
Kakusthavarman.
Kakusthavarma was the most powerful ruler of the dynasty. According to Sastri and Moraes, under the rule of Kakusthavarma, the kingdom reached its pinnacle of success and the Talagunda record calls him the “ornament of the family”. The Halasi and Halmidi inscriptions also hold him in high esteem.

Krishnavarman 1, son of Kakusthavarman,
Santivarman, son of Kakusthavarman,.
Mrigesvaravarman, son of Santivarman,
Mandhatrivarman son of Santivarman,
Vishnuvarman son of Krishnavarman,
Devavarman son of Krishnavarman,
simhavarman son of Vishnuvarman,
Krishnavarman 2, son of simhavarman,.
Ravivarman son of Mrigesvaravarman,
Bhanuvarman son of Mrigesvaravarman,
Sivaratha, son of Mrigesvaravarman,
Harivaman, son of Ravivarman

Srungavarapukota Plates

Written by Alok Mohan on January 21, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 52.

Srungavarapukota Plates of Anantavarman.
Vasishtha  dynasty ruled kalinga in the fifth century C.E.
Siripuram and  Srungavarapukota copper-plate inscriptions provide genealogical details of Vasishtha dynasty.
These Inscriptions are in Sanskrit and , written I’m Brahmi script of early southern type of 5th-6th centuries A.D.
Provenance: Srungavarapukota, Vizagapatam district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Brahmi, early southern type of 5th-6th centuries A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: M. Narasimham, J. Andhra Historical Research Society.
VIII, pp.153-60 R.C. Majumdar, Ep.Ind. XXIII, pp. 56-61.

Footnote 1.
1. Also known from his Sripuram copper plates (See M. Narasimgham, Telugu journal Bharati. sept. 1931)
Footnote 2.

1. The cultivator who found the plates, broke the third Plate and got the broken half smelted under the misconception
that these were of gold.
2. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXII, facing pp.60.
3. Pishtapura is identified with Pithapuram in Godavari district and Devarashtra with Vizagapatam district.
G. Jouvean-Dubreuil (Ancient history of the Deccan, pp.60) proved with the help of Kasimkota plates Elamanchi
Kalingadeso formed part of Devarashtra. Modern Yellamanchili
represents Elamanchi, the chief city of Kalinga in those days. The present grant supports this identification. In
his Allahabad prasasti samudragupta claims to have  conquered ishtapura as also Devarashtra,indicating that
they are separate, but neighbouring kingdoms in his time
Footnote 3.
1. Identification is not certain. M. Narasimham states
that the moden Jeypore must have been called Tellavalli Vishaya in ancient times on account of the river Tel,
known in early times as Telivahi, which flows across it.
Majumdar on the other hand suggests the identification of this town with the village of Tella-gamudy (82°-58′ x17°
58′) about 24 km South West of Srungavarapuka, the find-spot of the plates, located near another village named Kondapalem, which may represent the village Kindeppa of the
inscription. He realises the difficulty in the latter identification because there are sevaral villages named
Kondapalem in the neighbourhood of Srungavarapukota.
English Translation of the inscription.

Om Hail!
From the administrative office of Pishtapura, the city of victory, the illustrious Maharaja Anantavarman,
the lord of Kalinga, who adores the feet of his mother and father, who is a devout worshipper of Mahesvara (Siva)
whose greatness has been enhanced by his solicitude for the gods. the twice-born (i.e.Brahmanas) and the elders, who has acquired fame and is richly endowed with prudence, modesty and strength, who has acquired the earth by his own strength and
valour who is the dear son of the illustrious Maharaja Prabhanjanavarman, the moon of the Vasishtha family, who
(Prabhanjanavarman) brought about the prosperity of the kingdom by the three elements of regal power, who
(Anantavarman) is the most excellent grand son of the illustrious Maharaja Gunavarman, who acquired fame by victory, in many stubbornly fought battles, who was the lord of
Devarashtra, whose spotless virtues, like the rays of autumn moon, pervaded the sphere of the earth– commands
all the ryots present at the village of kindeppa in the district Tellavalli:
This village has been granted by us, during  Solstice, for increasing our religious merit, to this
Matrisarman of Kaushika gotra, a student of Taittiriya sakha,
and a resident of Achantapura-bho ga, making (the village) annagrahara or as long as the moon the sun and the stars endure, and exempting it from all the  taxes and liabilities.
Having understood this command you should daily attend upon him in obedience to this order.The Brahmana enjoying his agrahara in hereditary succession (lit. through sons and
grand sons) should not be sacked by any Officers, however eminent.
The future royal ascetics, nursing their own good conduct should act in a manner that this source of virtue
continues without intermission.This being so, the association
of those succeeding kings also with the act of piety is accorded in the Smitis.
Here follow three of the customary verses)
By the increasing majesty
On the thirteenth ) during the summer solstice
this religious gift is made. 3Y kings own oral order.
Footnote 1.
1. Narasimham:  Majumdar: The full sentence presumably was
2. This inscription adds three names viz. Gunavarman,
Prabhanjanavarman and Anantavarman to the list of kings, who ruled in Kalinga between the expedition of
samudragupta (335 to379 A.D.) and the rise of Ganga dynasty (About 496 A.D.) The other known kings are
Achandavarman (Komarti Plates, Supra, IV/10,  Ep.Ind. IV,144 ff) Uma-varman Brihatproshtha grant ib, XII, pp.4 ff and
Tekkali Plare.J.A.H.R.S, VI, pp 53-54 and Supra, IV,7)
Nanda-Prabhanjanavarman,
Ind.Ant, XIII, pp.48 f) Sakti-varman
Ragolu Plate, Ep.Ind, XII, pp.1 ff, and supra, IV, 12) and visakhavarman (Ep.Ind,. X, pp. 23ff, Supra, IV, 16)

Footnote-2.
1. The three saktis are Prabhu, mantra and utsaha, i.e.
the majesty of the king, good counsel and high morale respectively,
2. In the inscriptions of the sallodbhava, the Parivrajaka, the Uchehakalpa and the Ganga kings, the term bhogika
is used as an official designation presumably of the officer incharge of a bhoga, i.e. A territorial unit.
The office carried dignity and prestige for in the records of the Parivajaka and utchchakalpa kings, even high officials like Mahasandhi vigrahika performed
the same office, and described their fathers and grand fathers as bhogikas. Mother meaning of Bhogika
given in Sanskrit Dictionaries, is groom or horse-keeper
cE. also Telugu bhoi =  A palanquin-bearer. Neither sense
suits the present context. The donee matrisarman, a Vedic scholar, can neither be taken as a regular official,
Footnote-2.
nor as a menial. Hence, the term here seems to have been used merely to identify the district of his origin.
The sense of vallabha-durlabha is not clear. means, an over seer, superintendent or herdsman I
Vallabha probably stands for a royal official. One of the
Dictionary meanings of durlabha is eminent or extraordinary.

The Vasishthas

Written by Alok Mohan on January 20, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

THE VASISHTHAS.

Consequent to decline of Gupta rule, during fifth century CE, following three dynasities emerged in Andhra Pradesh.

1. Matharas

2. Pitr-bhaktas

3. Vasistha

Following were the three important kings of Vasishtha dynasty:-

1  Anantavarman son of Prabhanjanavarman, 

2. Prabhanjanavarman son of Maharaja Gunavarman, the lord of devapura.

Anantavarman ruled his empire from his headquarters Devarashtra, ( Yelamanchili city) inherited from his ancestors. 

Anantavarman was a devotee of Lord Shiva.

Inscription number 51.

Siripuram Plates of Anantavarman, Lord of Kalinga.

Provenance: Siriparam, near Chicacole, Vizagapatam district, Andhra Pradesh.

Now in Government Maseum, Chennai.

Script:  Brahmi of the southern class of 6th century A.D.

L: Sanskrit.

References: Narasimham, Bharati Telugu Monthly) Sept.1931,

J.Andhra History Research Society. VIII, pp.153, G.V. Srinivasa Rao, Ep.Ind.. XXIV, pp.47-52.

Footnote 1.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXV, facing pp.51.

2. Expressed by the usual spiral symbol.

3. Devapura may be identified either with Devada in Srungavarapukota taluk or with Devadi in chicacole taluk.

4. is en graved below the line, under go.

The omission in the line is indicated by a small cross above the line.

Footnote-2.

1. Tontapara is presumably represented by the modern village Tatada in the chicacole taluk.

2. cf, the expression,

of the Brihatproshtha grant ( Ep.Ind, XII, pp.44ff) 

3. The word yajana is repeated by mistake.

English Translation of the inscription

Om. Hail!

From the victorious city of Devapura,

Anantavarman, the glorious lord of Kalinga, who is endowed with prudence, refinement truthfulness, purity of life, good conduct, liberality, generosity, dexterity, enthusiasm and

strength, who has acquired the earth by the valour of his own arms who is ever devoted, to the welfare of his subjects9 who subject; who is a devout worshipper of Mahesvara and who meditates on the feet of his parents; who is the son of the glorious Maharaja

Prabhanjanavarman, who was richly adorned with a multitude of good

qualities, and was the son of the glorious Maharaja Gunavarman, who was a full moon among the vast and spotless family of Vasishthas, who was ever engaged in granting many pious gifts of land, gold, cows in thousands and the like; to whom the royal fortune accrued by means of the three fold legal power, and who possessed great fame as pure as the light of the exceedingly clear autumnal moon, commands all the assembly of the house holders in Tontapuras:- This village is already an agrahara enjoying privileges in common with the others in the sub-divi sion of Kharapuri, and is paying taxes. The same has now been granted by us with due rites preceded by libation of water making it an agrahara to last as long as the moon and the sun do, separating it from the sub-division of Kharapuri and the division bhoga of Pattana, and exempting it from all

taxes for the increase of our religious merit, longevity and fame, to the same Brahmanas, numbering eight share-

holders, of Atreya gotra and charana, who are engaged in performing and helping others to perform sacrifices, in

study and teaching, in making and receiving gifts, on the day of full moon in the month of Magha in the year, Mahasvayuja. Having understood this, you should present yourself before them with all due respect on word being sent, after offering the proceeds of the village and this order should be respected by the kings to come in future  times also in the matter of protecting this pious gift.

Footnote 

1. The mark of punctuation inscribed is

2. The text beyond this was in scribed on the third plate,  which is lost.

3. Many kings of the period whose in inscriptions are included in this section claimed to be the lords of

Kalingas Visakhavarman, who issued Korosahanda grant.

(Ep.Ind., XXI, pp. 23 ff. Also IV,16 above) from Sripura, identified with siripuram the find-spot of the present 

plate, may also belong to the kalingadhdhipati group of

rulers though he does not specifically claim this title.

From the provenance of their plates and the places mentioned in them, we gather that their territory extended in the north to the southen portion of the

Ganjam district and in the south to the northern portion of the Godavari district. Varahavartani division, which

was under Anantasaktivarman, according to his plates, passed

in the Ganga year 79 – about 575 A.D. into the possession of the

Eastern Ganga king. Hastivarman (Narasingapalli Plates,

Ep.Ind. XXIII. pp.63 Supra, IV, 43). Sometime later Pishtapura passed into the hands of Prithivi Maharaja.

(Tandivada grant, Ep.Ind, XII, pp.88 ff,

probably a subordinate of the vishnukundins, who lost it

to the chalukyas under Pulikesin II, (Ep.Ind., VI, pp.11.)

Thus these Kalingadhi patis seem to have disappeared before

the close of the 6th century A.D. They had not yet come to power early in 4th century AD, when Samudragupta invaded the

south and captured Mahendra of Pishtapura and Kubera of

Devarashtra.

Footnote.

Dating in the twelve year cycle of Jupiter, according to which the year commences on the day when Jupiter, after  it’s conjunction with the sun, rises heliacally at mean Sunrise in a particular nakshatra after which it is named (see Ep.Ind., VIII, pp. 289), was in vogue only, in the 5th and 6th centuries of the christian era.

In the Annual Report on South Indian Epigraphy for 1931-32, C.R. Krishnamacharlu, assuming the Ganga

era to start in 493 A.D., assigns the Achutapuram Plates of Indravarman ( Ep.Ind., III, pp.128 f.)

dated in the 87th year of the era to 580 A.D.,  and assuming the present record to be about half a century earlier,

assigns it to 528-29 AD.. the year in which Mahasyayuja occurred. Mahasvayuja occurred in 516 A.D. and

504 A D. also.

These years are equally possible for the present record.

Ipur Plates of Madhavavarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 20, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

 
 

Inscription number 50.

Ipur Plates of Madhavavarman 3, son of Govindavarman. Regnal year 37.

Madhavavarman was son of

Govinda Varman and Mahadevi. He had two sons – Vikramendra Varma and Deva Varma.

His predecessor was Madhava Varma 1, who was also a popular ruler. The Vishnukundina Empire had reached its greatest territorial extent under him. He defeated Prithvishena 2, a powerful Vakataka king. He occupied Kalinga and invaded the Pallavas of Kanchipuram in his 33rd regnal year.

“He wrote ‘Janasraya’. he had an epithet- ‘Trivara Nagara Bhavnagata Sundari Hridaya Nandana’  The one who brought happiness to the beautiful maidens living in the buildings of the city of Trivara”

After occupying the areas from the Ananda Gotrikas, Madhava Varma made Amarapura, modern Dharanikota, near the Amaravati Stupa, as the headquarters of his kingdom.

Provenance: In the possession of Brindavanam Gopalacharlu of

Ipur Tenali taluk, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.

Script: Southern type of Brahmi. Language:  Sanskrit, slightly influenced by Prakrit.

References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind, XVII, pp.334-37.

Footnote 1.

1. Besides the two sets of Ipur Plates, assigned above to Madhavarman 2 and 3 respectively, this name figures in the Ramatirtham Plates of Indravarman. (Ep.Ind, XII, pp.132) and the chikkula plates of Vikramendravarman 2,

(ib, IV, pp.193) Combining the details recorded in all these plates, we can reconstruct the Vishnukundin genealogy as under:-

Madhavavarman 1, Devaarman,

Madhavavarman 2, (year forty seven),

Govindavarman, Madhavavarman 3, (year thirty seven), Vikramendra or Vikramendravarman 1,

Indravarman or Indrabhattarakavarman (year twenty seven),

Vikramendravarman 1, (year ten)

Footnote 2.

1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XVII, facing pp.334.

2. Hultzsch emends नय to भुज, which is not necessary.

3. Hiranyagarbha is the name of Brahma, the creator as also of vishnu, and of the author of the Rigveda, X.121.

Possibly Visinukundins claimed descent from vishnu.

That may explain the phrase     

हिरण्यग्रभ – प्रसूत: 

 

English Translation of the inscription.

Hail ! The son of the glorious Maharaja Govindavarman, who

meditated on the feet of the holy lord of sriparvata;  who belonged to the family of the vishnukundins, whose power and valour were immeasurable, who was most religious, to whom all vassals

had submitted and who made many gifts of cows, gold and land.

The glorious Maharaja Madhavavarman, who is richly gifted with memory wisdom, strength, stamina, patience, bravery, (and)

Modesty, Whose edicts are honoured by kings all over the round

earth, who delights the hearts of the young women standing in

the palaces of Trivaranagara, who has subdued all the vassals by his power of statecraft (or diplomacy) endowed with

unequalled power, modesty, statesmanship, self-restraint, and

stamina, whose commands are honoured by the rulers of the earth,

in the whole world who has performed thousands of Agnishtoma

sacrifices born of Hiranyagarbha, who has shaken off the sins of the world by ritual baths following eleven asvamedhas and who is a man of sustained activity from his camp of victory, pitched at Kudavada commands as follows all the villagers of Vilembali, in the district (vishaya) of Guddadi:-

For the sake of prosperity of our family. I have given this village wi th all exemptions, to this Brahmana Agnisarman, of the Vatsa gotra.

Knowing this all royal officers should

exempt and preserve it.

The executor ajna of this charter was the king’s dear Son Manchyanna Bhattaraka.

(Here follow two of the customary verses) 

In the thirty seventh year of the increasingly victorious reign, the 15th day of the 7th fortnight of the hot season.

Seal: Sri Madhavavarman.

Vishnukundins

Written by Alok Mohan on January 18, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

THE VISHHNUKUNDINS.

The early rulers of the dynasty migrated from eastern deccan to the west deccan in search of employment however subsequently, they attained feudatory status. During the reign of Madhava Varma, Vishnukundin became independent and conquered coastal Andhra from the Salankayanas  and established his capital at Denduluru, near Eluru. The dynasty had initially ruled from Indrapalanagara and later shifted to Denduluru, and Amaravati. Vishnukundin empire was divided into a number of Karma Rashtra, Rashtras, Guddadi, Vishaya etc. All disputes were sent to the highest court of justice headed by the king. Vishnukundina rulers had established several well documented punishments for various crimes. Vishnukundin kings were known for their impartial judgment and high sense of justice.

Inscription number 49.

Ipur Plates of Madhavavarman 1, son of Devavarman.
Provenance: In the possession of Brindavanam Gopalacharlu
of Ipur, Tenali taluk, Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Early southern type of Brahmi.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind, XVII, pp.337-39.
(For Vishnukundin genealogy, see in Infra, IV, 50,  n.1.)
Footnote 1.
From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XVI, facing pp.338.
2. Malaya is the same as the western Ghats. Note that Devavarman is not given any royal title.
He may not have ruled.
3. Sriparvata is the same as modern srisailam in Kurnul district.
4. Hultzschs: मुरो – क – कि-ग्रामे
Footnote-2.
1. Hultzch:  राज-ध्यानोदात्ता
2. Expressed by the spiral symbol. वा
is an an abbreviation for वासा a Prakritised form of वाप or
may stand for  वार्ष: पक्ष:. or वासन्त: पक्ष:
3. The seal impression in the Ep.Ind. XVII is illegible
4. The reading given above is produced from Hultzsch.
English Translation of the inscription.
Hail ! ! From Amarapura, the dear grandson of the illustrious Maharaja Madhavavarman, who had shaken off the sins of the world by ritual baths at the end of eleven horse
sacrifices, who had performed a thousand agnistoma Sacrifices,
whose pair of lotus-like feet was studded with the jewels of
the crest of the diadems of many bowing vassals, the dear
son of illlustrious Devavarman. whose matchless renowned valour
started with an attack on kshatriyas, the glorious Madhavavarman,
the lord of the Trikuta and Malaya (mountains) who is endowed
with statesmanship, modesty and stamina, who meditates on the
feet of the holy lord of Sriparvata and who belongs to the family of Vishnukundins. commands as follows, the people at the village of Murodyakadriki.
We have granted ths village Murodyakadriki to
Agnisarman and Indrasarman
who are rich in the
Performance of self restraint, Yama the obligatory rituals, myama, the study of sacred texts and Sacrifices.
knowing thus this village be exempted by the district officials janapadaih and caused to be exempted by others.
The execution of this charter was obtained from the mouth of the vishnukundin sovereign. The year 47, the 7th day of the 7th fortnight of the rainy season (or spring season)
Om !
Here follow two of the customary verses.
Seal: The illustrious Madhavavaman.
Footnote.
Yama and niyama are the first two of the eight steps or stages of yoga, the last stage being samadhi or
ultimate communion with God.
Serially the eight steps are Yama, niyama, asana, pranayama, pratyahara
dharama dhyana, samadhi.

 

Penukonda Inscription of Madhava

Written by Alok Mohan on January 18, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 48.
Penukonda Copper plate Inscription of Madhava 2 (Rather 3) alias Simhavarman.
Vishnukundins hailed from Vishnukonda, a place at a distance of fifty miles to the south of the river Krishna in Andhra Pradesh.
This place retains several fragmentary remains and a fort, of historical importance. Govinda Varma son of Vikramamahendra, was the contemporary of Vakataka king Harisena . His son,  who after having conquered the Andhra country, had put Govindavarma on the throne. Govindavarma was the first among the Vishnukundins to assume the title of Maharaja.
Madhavavarma 1, son of Govindavarma,  had married a Vakataka princess. Two copper-plates of Madhavavarma and his descendants give good information about his empire.
Madhavavarma was a follower of sanatana Dharma and had carried out several Ashavamedha sacrifices, according to Vedic traditions.
His empire extended to Andhra, Kuntala,  southern Maharahshtra and modern Chhattisgad..As his sons had predeceased him, the kingdom was divided between his grandsons. One of these namely Madhavavarman 2,  the  trikuta-malayadhipatih’
After Madhavavarman 2, the Rashtrakutas became powerful in southern Maharashtra and at about 550 A.D.
Kalachuris of Mahishmati came to establish then power in northern Maharashtra as well as Vidarbha. This leads to the inference that the Vishnukundins lost their power; although they continued to rule in their province namely Andhra till the 7th century A. D. before being vanquished by the illustrious Chalukya ruler Pulkeshin 2.
Madhava Varma was a  strong king & succesful ruler. During his reign, his empire reached its greatest territorial extent.  His army comprised many elephants, horses, Chariots and thousands of foot soldiers.
The Western Gangas supported all major religious beliefs like Jainism, Shaivism, Vedic Brahmanism, Vaishnavism etc.
Many Hindu temples are built by the Ganges, with beautiful Dravidian gopuras including stucco sculptures from the Hindu pantheon, elaborate pierced screen windows in the mantapa (hall), and saptamatrika carvings (seven heavenly mothers).

Provenance: Penukonda or Penugonda. Anantapur District, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Late Brahmi of the southern class of the second half of the 5th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metres: Vv.1-3
References: Fleet, J.R.A.S. 1915, pp.480, L. Rice, Ep.Ind.,
XIV, pp. 334 f,  Sircar: Select.Inss, I,
pp. 480-82.
Fleet places this record in 475 A.D.
Footnote 1.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XIV. The seal bears the figure of an elephant to
2. In the left margin  is engraved opp. 1.1. while स्वस्ति
is engraved on level with 1.2.
3. Rice: विदारणोय
4. Also spelt as कोड़न्गणिवर्मन in some records. According to Nagar stone Inscription. (E.C. VIII, No.35) his other name was
Madhava. He was the younger brother of Dadiga, whose son and successor too assumed the title Mad hava 2,
Maharaja. Hence the Madhava of this plate is Madhava 3.
Footnote 2.
1. In most of the Ganga plates the third king is named Harivarman, while in Bendiganhalli plate, he is named
Krisnavarman, Krishna being a synonym of Hari. In the Tanjore plates his name is Spelt in the Tamil
form as Arivarman, which seems to have been improved in the present plates as Ayya i.e, Arya-varman
Simha-varman Pallava of 1.7, is identified with the Kanchisa simha-varman, whom the Jain work, Lokavibhaga places in 380 saka = 458 A.D. See Sircar, Successors
of the satavahanas, pp.176).

Footnote 3.
In all the other records the third king is named as Vishnugopa or vishnukopa as in Kadagattur plates or
Bishnugopa as in the Ganjam plates, and then follows his son Madhava 3, distinguished in some records as
Tadangala Madhava, perhaps owing to a limp in his gait.
One record (E.C., VII, sh, 4) makes him Vishnugopa’s grandson, which may be correct, Indicating that his
actual father did not rein. In the Allahabad pillar inscription (supra II, 5) of Samudragupta, Vishnugopa of Kanchi figures among the captured and
reinstated kings of southern India.
This Vishnugopa was a Pallava. In Pallava inscriptions (see Ind.Ant, V,
pp.50, 154) he is mentioned along with skandavarman and
simhavarman, who are connected with the Gangas in a special manner in this record. This fact as also the
omission of his name in the present record makes his position confusing. It seems the Gangas often copied the
names of their suzerains, the Pallavas as is the case of simhavarman in this grant. It appears the omission of
Vishnugopas name in this plate is unintentional. The
attribute, devoted to the gods, the twice-born and the guru
is distinctive of Vishnugopa’s in other records and is never used for Madhava.
The engraver seems to have through
carelessness, skipped Vishnugopa’s name in the written
charter supplied to him. This led to the piling up of is
distinctive attributes on his successor Madhuva along with the latter’s own.
Footnote 4.
1. Modern Parigi, 11 km. north of Hindupur in Anantapur district,
still note for its tank. Parivi is mentioned in early records as the capital of he Banas.
2. Expressed by the spiral symbol.
3. Khandula-vapa is the measure of land on which a quantity of one khanduka of grain, could be sown.
Footnote 5.
The date of Pallava Simhavarman can be fixed with certainty on the evidence of three manu script copies
of Sanskrit translation of the Digambara Jain work,
Lokavibhaga, ( from original Prakrit) by the Rishi simha-suri or simha-sura. It is stated on these that the work was copied by Muni Sarvanandin in the village Patalika in Banarashtra in the 22nd year of simhavarman,
the lord of Kanchi, and in the year 380 of saka era, 458 A.D. Thus Simhavarman’s date of accession would be 436 A.D.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om peace Victory to the lord Padmanabha, who possesses blue sheen of the cloudless sky.
Oo the full moon day in the month of chaitra, Sixty five fields twenty seven khanduka-vapas in extent situated
below the great Paruvi lake in the Karmatuva region, in the
Paruvi district were granted the libation of water in the tradition of Brahma Gifts to the Bramana Kumarasarman of the
Vatsa lineage gotra and Taittiriya charan a proficient in the
observance of the Yamas and the niyamas, penance, self-education,
sacrificing, conducting sacrifices, studying and teaching, possessing effective power of cursing and blessing and accepter and receiver of gifts, by the illustrious simhavarman,
the Madhava Mahadhiraja of the  Gangas, who was duly anointed by the illustrious Skanda-varman Maharaja of
the family of the Pallavas, who Simhavarman, was consecrated in the kingdom, which had descended in succession in his own family, who was
the banner of the Gangeya family, who had earned the glory of royalty by the prowess of his own arm, whose mind
was formed through the practice of piety, devoted to the worship of gods brahmanas and the elders (or the preceptors), who possessed the qualities of his father and grand father;
who was the son of the Ganga king Aryavarman, duly anointed by
Maharaja simha-varman, the lord of the illustrious Pallava family and whose body was adorned wounds received in
many battles, who knew the essence of various sastras, itihasas and Puranas, and who was the son of him, the illustrious Madhava Mahadhiraja, who obtained the kingship with the only
object of the good government of his subjects, who was skilled in the exposition and practice of the science of politics, who had developed a special intelligence by acquiring the true
sense of the meaning of diverse sastras, who inherited the
qualities of his Father, and who was the son of the illustrious Konkani-varman Dharma-Mahadhiraja of Kanvayana gotra, who was adorned with wounds received in battle, while cutting down the hosts of fierce enemies, who was possessed of a state, peopled
wi th good citizens and established as a result of swift victory of hs own arm, and who was the sun illumining the clear firmament of the Jahnaveya or Gangaya family.
He who confiscates this shall become guilty of five great sins. And also in this context are verses sung by Manu.
Here follow three of the traditional imprecatory and benedictory verses).
This copper-plate charter is written by Apapa, the son of the gold smith Arya. Om

Western Gangas

Written by Alok Mohan on January 17, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Western Gangas
Inscription number 47.
Sasanakota Plates of Ganga Madhavavarman 1.
-(Regnal) Year 1.
Western Ganga was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE. They are known as “Western Gangas” to distinguish them from the Eastern Gangas, who in later centuries ruled over Kalinga (modern Odisha and Northern Andhra Pradesh). The general belief is that the Western Gangas began their rule during a time, when multiple native clans asserted their freedom due to the weakening of the Pallava empire in South India, a geo-political event, sometimes attributed to the southern conquests of Samudra Gupta. The Western Ganga sovereignty lasted from about 350 to 550 CE, initially ruling from Kolar and later, moving their capital to Talakadu on the banks of the Kaveri River in modern Mysore district.
After the rise of the imperial Chalukyas of Badami, the Gangas accepted Chalukya overlordship and fought for the cause of their overlords against the Pallavas of Kanchi. The Chalukyas were replaced by the Rashtrakutas of Manyakheta in 753 CE as the dominant power in the Deccan. After a century of struggle for autonomy, the Western Gangas finally accepted Rashtrakuta overlordship and successfully fought alongside them against their foes, the Chola Dynasty of Tanjavur. In the late 10th century, north of Tungabhadra river, the Rashtrakutas were replaced by the emerging Western Chalukya Empire and the Chola Dynasty saw renewed power south of the Kaveri river. The defeat of the Western Gangas by Cholas around 1000 resulted in the end of the Ganga influence over the region.
Though territorially a small kingdom, the Western Ganga contribution to polity, culture and literature of the modern south Karnataka region is considered important. The Western Ganga kings showed benevolent tolerance to all faiths but are most famous for their patronage toward Jainism resulting in the construction of monuments in places such as Shravanabelagola and Kambadahalli. The kings of this dynasty encouraged the fine arts due to which literature in Kannada and Sanskrit flourished.
Western Ganga dynasty was founded by Konkanivarman. He was known as Dharmamahadhiraja.  However he had accepted Chalukya overlordship Chalukyas as they were dominating force, which fought for the cause of their overlords against the Pallavas of Kanchi.
Consequent to decline of pallava kingdom, many local clans asserted their independence, however western Gangas were able to exert their influence on small kingdoms & the major  reason was consistent Samudragupta’s southern invasions.
After a century of fight for independence, the Western Gangas had ultimately acknowledged Rashtrakuta as their master and successfully fought alongside them against their adversaries, the Chola Dynasty of Thanjavur. The vedic literature especially Arthashastra inspired administrative & governance process  of the Western Ganga dynasty. Women were given special importance in administration & governance jobs & for this system the Ganga rulers delegated necessary authorities to their queens.
Gangas avoided lethal punishment because they believed that killing a human being was a sin.
The kingdom was split into Rashtra (districts), and then into Visaya (perhaps 1000 villages) and Desa.
Provenance: Sasanakota, Hindupur taluk, Anantapur district, Karnataka.
Footnote 1.
1. Most of the western Ganga records are spurious. sufficient evidence is not forthcoming to enble us to settle early Western Ganga genealogy. The western Gangas may have been related to their neighbours, the Eastern Gangas. Both the states were on the eastern coast. The Eastern Ganga records do suggest some relationship, though there are some difficulties. The vizagapatam plates (Saka 1040) of Anantavarman
Chodaganga and the Kendupatna plates (Saka 1217 or 1 218) of
Narasiaha 2 (Bhandarkar’s List Numbers,1103 and 1116) refer
to Kolahala as an ancestor of the eastern Gangas, and former also refers to the foundaton of the city Kolahalapura, by Kolahala in Gangavadi, popular name of the western Ganga
country in mysore. But the Eastern Ganga dynasty is not
called Janhaveya-Kula, and their gotra is Atreya, not Kanvayana as of the western Gangas.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind. XXV, between pp. 238 and 239.
2. Expressed by the spiral symbol engraved in left margin.
3. The dot over ta in jita is due to corrosion and is not
anusvara.
4. The half line upto jani is in palimpsest.
5. After this a letter like pa is engraved and then beaten out.
Footnote 3.
1. In determining the dates of the Penukonda plates of the
present king’s grandson, Madhava 2, (Infra IV, 48)
Fleet has given A.D. 475 as a very good date for it (Ep.ind, XIV, pp.331)
Giving 25 years to each of the two generations, We can roughly assign our plate to 425 A.D, which agrees with
its palaeography.
2. The Penukonda plates of Madhavavarman 2 (or 3 according
to Rice, Ep.Ind. IV, pp.331) read Paruvi-Vishaya. It appears that the subscribe has inadvertently dropped one of the two    . It is a case of haplography. Paruvi-vishaya
has been identified by Rice with Parigi (Ep,Ind, XIV, pp 331)
about 11 km north of Hindupur in Anantapur district.
3. Velputtoru is obviously identical with the modern village
Velpumadugu, in Gooty taluk, Anantapur district. It is
a very ancient settlement. The adjoining isolated round-topped granite hill, crowned with a fortification of post
neolithic date, yieided a good harvest of celts and other neolithic artifacts. (see Bruce Foote, Ind an Pre-historic
and Proto-historic antiquities pp.99). Toru (in velputtoru or doruou is synonymous with madugu (in Velpumadugu) in Telugu and means a pond.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om !  The Lord Padmanabha, (Vishnu)
who resembles the cloud-free sky is victorious. In the first year of his growing and exceedingly prosperous reign, on the tithi, in the bright fortnight of the month of Phalguna, the illustrious, Madhavavarman, who has properly classified the devotees and
servants,  whose only objective in attaining kingship is through
nursing of his subjects, who is an expert in correct enunciation
and application of the Niti-sastra (the science of politics or political ethics) complete even in it’s specialisations, who has become a touchstone for (testing the quality of the gold that
are the learned people and the poets, who have acquired specialised
wisdom by comprehending the meaning and the good sense of many
sciences sastras) who possesses the fame and majesty of
having exterminated or captured his enemies by the prowess
of his own arms, who inherited the qualities of his father,
who is the son of the Dharma-Mahadhiraja, the illustrious
Konganivarman who was of kanvayana gotra, who worn the ornaments of wounds (Ii.e.scars) received in battles in crushing the crowds of his dreadful enemies who had created
a nation of virtuous people by victories born of the swiftness of his own arms, who was like a sun, shining in the clear sky, of the illustrious family of the Jahnavayas (i.e. Gangas) has granted together with all the immunities, according to the customary law of gifts to Brahmanas, the village named veiputtoru, in the Paru or Paruvi district, with libation of water, for his
own emancipation to Dharasarman of Vatsa gotra and Taittiriya charana.
Whosoever is its confiscator, whether out of greed or of negligence, will be united with the eleven great sins.
Also there are verses sung by Manu:
(Here follow three of the customary verses)
BY the order of the Maharaja from his own mouth, this
Copper-plate plate was written by Somasarman.

Urajam Plates of Indravarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 16, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 46.

Urajam Plates of Indravarman 2, Ganga  year ninety seven,(593 A.D.)
Ganga  dynasty rulers were not only conquerors and capable administrators, but they were also great supporters of religion, religious institutions, art, and architecture, as evidenced by the construction of several exquisite temples.The Ganga Dynasty had a significant impact on the states of Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala, and Andhra Pradesh.
There were two Ganga Dynasties:
1.  Eastern Ganga Dynasty and the 2. Western Ganga
The Western Gangas ruled in Mysore state from 250 to about 1004 CE. The Eastern Gangas ruled Kalinga from 1028 to 1434–35.
The imperial Ganga kings ruled from Kalinga Nagara and had seized control of a vast region stretching from the Ganga River in the north to the Godavari River in the south.The Ganga kings were devotees of Siva.
They gave vast lands to Vedic academics and temples. Most gifts were given to Vishnu temples and Vaishnavite Brahmins.

Provenance: Urajam village, 11 km, to the north-east of Narasanapeta, Srikakulam district, Andhra
Pradesh.
The second and third plates are now in
Government Museum, Chinnai, while the first is, probably with the superintendent, A.S.I, South–Eastern
Circle, Hyderabad.
Footnote 1.
The other grants known of this king are:
1. Achyutapuram plates of the year eighty seven (Ep.Ind, III, pp.1 27ff), 11) 2. Parlaki-medi Plates of the year ninety one (Ind. Ant, XVI, pp.131 ff. and
Plate)
Script: Box-headed variety of Brahmi of the southern class. But the boxes are solid and less prominant than those in Vakataka records.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: P.R. Srinivasan and R. Subrahmanyam, Ep.Ind, XXXVII , pp.159-62.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind, XXXVII between pp.160 and pp.161
2. Expressed by tha usual Spiral symbol.
3. Kalinganagara has been identifled  with Mukhalingam.
Footnote 3
1. ति-सहित are engraved over some letters written wrongly earlier.
2. चेताली  is a Prakrit word for ‘river bank boundary-line.
See Pt Hargovind Das, T. sheth, Pala-Sadda-Mahannavo,1928, pp.1023.
3.  झोलिक is probably is for झोड meaning a betal-nut tree. तण्डि -कुप्पक is not clear. तण्डक means an upright post of
a house or the trunk of a tree. in 1.15 below is evidently a professional designation of a man, named Domba,
who had something to do with kuppies or oil-storage vessels.
4. Third plate Second Side, a word is overwritten over a word engraved earlier by mistake.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om Hail !
From Kalinganagara, which is pleasant
in all seasons the illustrlous Maharaja Indravarman, the devotee of Mahesvara (Siva) meditating on the feet of his
mother and father, with feet tinged with the beam of light, emenatng from the crest-jewels of all the feudatories, made to bow by his excessive prowess; the mainstay of the prestige of the glawless Ganga family, who aroused shouts of victory in the mellees of several battles whose flawless
fame has spread over the surface of the earth girdled by the waves of the four oceans, who attained the sovereignty  of the entire Kalinga as a result of the actions of the
edge of his own sword; who is the support of descipline, morality and prosperity, and who has been freed from the impurities of the age of Kali by obeisance to the feet of
the god, Lord Gokarna, the sole architect of the creation of
the entire worlds, commands all the house-holders en masse in the village of Honjeri in the Kroshtukavartani district,
Let it be known to you that the land along with a residence that was purchased in this village by Matrichandra-sarman from the Agraharika of Honjeri village, that land and house, we have granted with libation of water on the full-moon day of Maha-Karttika month to Matrichandrasarman , of Vatsa gotra and a student of chhandoga sakha, hailing from Bhattarakebhuj Knowing that nobody should create obstruction
And in this respect, the boundary marks are:
seven ant-hills located on the boundary line of Karuda village. From
there to the north is Jholika (A betel nut tree) to its north is, Tandikuppaka and to its north is the anthill by
a pair of sandal trees (2). to its west is the rock extending to the settlement of surannatata, to its south is the farm with a house inside and under cultivation by Domba-Kuppaka. The boundary marks of the internal pond section are: beginning
with the pair of sandal (haridra) trees, to the north, there is a row of ant-hills, to its west there are a clustre of
three dwarf tamarind trees arranged in order of kapatasandhi,
to it’s south is a row of tamarind trees. further there is a banian tree and beyond is the nandi tree Anogeissus Lotifolia. and that forementioned rock on the forest edge. And this virtuous
gift deserves to be preserved by the future kings.
And also, there are verses sung by Vyasa:
(Here follow three of the traditional imprecatory verses)
Of the flourishing victorious reign years ninety seven, This charter of Rajasimha has been written on his oral order by Aditya manchin the son of Vinayachandra.
The messenger (dutaka) is the lord Mahattara, Ravi svami.
Kindly note that Lines L1.26 and 27 are engaged in the left margin, above the ring hole.
Footnote 4.
1. Identified with the region around Narasannapeta, in the Srikakulam district, Andhra Pradesh,
2. i.e Karttika sukla 15, when the Jupiter and the moon were in the Krittika nakshatra.
3. Srinivasan explains the phrase, for the enjoyment of a certain deity (bhattaraka) But the phrase is ablative
Or genitive, certainly not dative.
4. Haladra is possibly a corruption of Sanskrit Haridra, which stands for sandal wood tree.
Footnote 5.
1. Kapata-sandhi is a mode of multiplying, in which the multipicand is placed in a peculiar manner under
the multiplier.
2. Rajasimha is an alias of Indravarman 2.
3. Adityamanchin son of Vinayachandra. is already known from the chicacole plates of Indravarman 3, of the Year 128 (Ep.Ind, XIII, pp.120 ff & Pl.) where he figures as the engraver.

Santa-Bommali Plates of Indravarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 14, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 45.
Santa-Bommali Plates of Indravarman 2, Ganga Year Eighty Seven.
Hastivarman was succeeded by his son, Indravarman 2, during the year 585 C.E.
The Eastern Ganga dynasty also known as, Rudhi Gangas or Prachya Gangas were a large medieval era Indian royal dynasty that reigned from Kalinga from as early as the 5th century to the mid 20th century. Eastern Ganga dynasty was therefore the longest reigning dynasty. Their currency was called Ganga fanams which was similar to that of the Cholas and Eastern Chalukyas of southern India.
The territory being ruled by eastern ganga dynasty comprised Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, West Bengal & Chattisgarh.
Provenance: Santa-Bommali village, Ganjam district, A. P.
Script:  Brahmi of the southern class.
Language: Sanskrit.
Metros: vv. 1-4:  अनुष्टुब.
References: Utkala sahitya Parishad Patrika, XXXI, Cuttack,
R.K. Ghoshal,  J. Andhra History, Residential Society, IV, pp.21ff, and plate. (ii) Ep.Ind, XXV, pp.194-198.
Footnote 1.
The other two known plates of this king are: (i) Achyuta-puram plates of the year eighty seven, and (ii) the Parla-Kimedi plates of the year 91. Another single plate, (S.N.
Rajaguru, J.A.H.R.S, III, pp.54) from Tirlingi in the Ganjam district, whose writer is also vinayachandra, the
son of Bhanuchandra, has been assigned to this king by D.R.Bhandarkar. (A List of inscriptions of Northern India, pp.285, n.1) He suggested very plausible emendation of the date, Ganga year 28, to the year 88. Ghoshal does not agree with
him. Banamalinagara is corrupted into Bommali, and since shandy (= santa in Telugu) used to take place there, the
town came to be called Santa-Bomnali.
Foot note 2.
1. From the facsimile in J.A.H.R.S, V, facing pp.23.
2. Expressed by the spiral symbol.
3. Variously Identified with modern Kalingapatam (Ind.Ant, XVI, pp.132) at the mouth of Vamsadhara river and with Mukhalingam near chicacole.
4. The punctuation mark is not required.
5. Mentioned in several early and later Ganga records.
Kroshtuka-varttani has been identifled by Hultzsch with modern chicacole.
Footnote 3.
A district (bhoga) called Dantayavagu is mentioned in the Brihatproshtha grant of Umavarman Ep.Ind.. XII, pp.5)
Footnote 4.
1. Talavara and Bhogika are both official designations.
2. This temple presumably is identical with the siva temple of Palesvara or Phalesvara, situated near ganta-Bommali .There is also a rock inscription near the temple.
3. Kulluka on Manu, VII, 119, defines hala and kula thus:
षडगवां मध्यमं हलमिति तथाविध – हल – द्वयेन यावती
भूमि र्विधते तत्कुलमिति
Hala thus may be an area of land capable of being cultivated with the help of six bullocks. Kula was double that area.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om Hail ! From the victorious (city of Kalinga-nagara, which is comfortable and pleasant in all seasons,
the illustrious Maharaja Indravarman, from whom the impurities of the Kali age have disappeared as a result of obeisance to the palr of lotus-feet of the Lord Gokarnasvamin the sole
architect of the entire world, who is the support of courtesies, moralities (naya) and wealth, who has attained the overlordship of the entire Kalinga by dint of the action of the ( sharp) edge
of his sword; whose flawless fame has spread over the entire surface of the earth girdled by the waves of the four oceans, who has caused the proclamation of his victories in the melle of many a battle who is the main stay of the prestige of the flawless family of the Gangas whose feet are dyed in the thick effusion of light emanating from the crest-jewels of
all the subordinate rulers made to bend by his excessive prowess, devoted to the feet of his parents and a devout
worshipper of mahesvara (siva) addresses the following order to all the peasant householders en-masse at the village of Haribhata in the district of Kroshtakavarttani.
Be it known to you that for the increase of religious merit of our parents and ourselves, we have, on being apprised
by the Bhogika and Talavara, Deva, having exempted from all taxes and having constituted it as an agrahara for the granted two halas of land in this village after portioning it off, for the
sake of performing the rites of bali, charu and sattra and for
the repairs of damages and breakages of the temple of the Lord God Ramesvara situated in the town of Dantayavagu and itself is granted for the same god, having constituted it as an agrahara for the god or as long as the moon and the sun last. Having known thus nobody should cause any
hinderance. The boundary marks of the farm in Haribhata are: To the north is the overflow channel of the tank belonging to the Kshatriyas. To the east is an arjuna tree, after that
a row of ant-hills, then an artificial line of heaped up stones, then a neem tree, to the south also is the overflow
channel of the same tank. To the west is a well, then the twin arjuna trees and then the royal road. And the future
kings should protect this pious gift. Moreover, in this context, they cite the following verses sung by Vyasa.
(Here follow three of the customary verses)
The year eighty seven of the increasingly victorious reign,
the 30th day of Jyeshtha. The charter of Rajasimha has been wri tten at his
own oral order by Vinayachandra, the son of Bhanuchandra.
Footnote.
The copper plate grants of Ganga kings available are listed as below:-
1. Tirlingi Plate, Ganga Year 28
2. Urlam Plates of Hastivarman, Ganga Year 80.
3. Telkali Plates of Indravarman, Ganga Year 87.
4  Santa-Bommali Plate of Indravarman,
Ganga Year 87.
5. Chattarpur plates of Devendravarman son of Rajendravarman, Ganga Year 91.
6. Tekkali plate of the same king,
Ganga Year 110.
7. Chicacole plates of Indravarman, Ganga Year 128.
8. Chicacole plates of Indravarman Ganga Year 138.
9. Purlipeta plates of Indravarman
son of Danarnava, Ganga Year 149.
10. Tekkali plate of the same king, Ganga Year 154.
11. Chicacole plates of Devendravarman son of Gunarnava. Ganga Year 183.
12. Adava plates of the same king, Ganga Year 184.
13. Sidhantam plates of the Same, Ganga Year 195.
14 Talateru plates of Anantavarman
son of Devendravarman, Ganga Year 204.
15, Tekkali plates of Indravarman
Son of Anantavarman. Ganga Year 221.
16. Kalinga grant of Devendravarman
S/o Anantavarman. Ganga Year 251.
17. Vizagapatam plates of the same as
above. Ganga Year 254.
18. Grant of Devendravarman son of Rajendravarmen. Ganga Year 308
19. Jirjingi plates of Indravarman, Ganga Year 309.
20. Plates of Rajendravarman son of Devendravaman. Ganga Year 342.
21. Chidivalasa plates of Indravarman or Vajri Manasimha son of Devendravaman. Ganga Year 397.
(JBORS,XII, pp.101)
22. His son Bhupendravarman. His son
Devendravarman. Ganga Year 397.

Urlam Plates of Hastivarman

Written by Alok Mohan on January 14, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

Inscription number 44.
Urlam Plates of Hastivarman (Ganga or Gangeya) Year Eighty (576 AD.)
Hastivarman was also called Rajasimha  and Ranabhita.
Eastern Ganga kings maintained a strong hold on Kalinga, for close to five centuries. Consequently Vajra-hasta, abolished Ganga era, and instituted saka era, which was subsequently accepted by Ganga kings. 
In this inscription,  Hastivarman, claimed that he had crushed the many enemies by strokes of the point of his scimitar. Both his Narasimhapalli plate and Urlam plates he claimed to be the lord of Sakala-kalinga. The early eastern Gangas were surrounded by Sailodbhabas of kongoda  in the north and eastern chalukyas in the south. The emblem found in Early Ganga inscription is saiva bull motif. Indravarman in his prasasti his says–he is that king whose sins have been removed as a result of his accumulation of religious merit by worshipping the supreme lord, which is Siva King.
Provenance: Obtained from the Raja of Urlam, chikakole taluk, Ganjam district, Andhra Pradesh.
Script: Early Southern Brahmi of early 4th century A.D.
Language: Sanskrit.
References: E. Hultzsch, Ep.Ind, XVI,
pp. 330-34.

Footnote 1.
The Ganga era commenced with the accession of Indravarman 1,
who founded the Eastern Ganga dynasty. The first year of this era appears to correspond to 496 A.D.
Footnote 2.
1. From the facsimile in Ep.Ind between pp. 332-333.
2. Expressed by the usual spiral symbol.
3. Kalinganagara is identified with modern Mukhalingam.
4. The mark of punctuation is superfluous.
English Translation of the inscription.
Om Hail ! From Kalinganagara, the city of victory, which is pleasant on account of the simultaneous presence
of the comforts of all seasons, the illustrious Maharaja Hastivarman, a fervent worshipper of Mahe svara (siva) who is in the thoughts of his respected father and mother, whose feet
are tinged with the beams of rays of light emanating the crest-
jewels of all the feudatories subdued by his excessive valour, who is the support base of the prestige of the flawless family of the Gangas, who has elicited slogans of victory in the meleces
of many battles, whose flawless fame has spread on the surface
of the entire earth girdled by the waves of the four oceans, who acquired the overlordship  of  entire Kalinga by the
flourish of his own sword, who is the support of the base prosperity,
righteousness and discipline, who has been absolved from the
vices of Kali age in consequence of obeissance to the pair of
the lotus-like feet of the holy Lord gokarna, the sole architect
of creation of the entire universe; comnands all the ryots in
the Hondevaka village, situated in the Kroshtuka district. (Varttani.)

Be it known to you that having purchased two and a half
ploughs (halas) of land from the residents of the agrahara and
demarkating it (as a separate section), exempting it from all
taxes and making it an agrahara to last as long as the moon and the sun we have granted it , for the increase of religious merit of our Parents and of ourselves on the eighth ( tithi)
of the dark fortnight of Karttika, with libation of water, to
Jayasarman who is a resident of Uramalla and is of Vatsa gotra
and a student of the Vajasaneya (sakha of the white Yajurveda)
Knowing this nobody should cause obstruction (to them) while
looking after their land.
And boundary marks hereof are to the east, an anthill

then the bank-line of a field, then the western bank-line of
the Ghoshana tank, then again the bank of a field. To the
south, Only the boundary of Hattaravanna,
To the west, the bank of a field, then an anthill, then an artificial row of
stones. Also to the north, the bank of a field, then an anthill
again an anthill then (the boundary) reaches the eastern anthill dnd future kings, should preserve this meritorious
gift. Moreover, there are (verses) sung by Vyasas;
Here follow three of the customary verses).
Eighty, 80, years of the reign of increasing Victory, the day 8 of Karttika.
This charter of the lion, among kings has been written on his verbal order by vinayachandra the son of Bhanuchandra.
This is an edict of the glorious Ranabhita, whose
commands are irresistible, and who has crushed the collection
of (hi s) enemies by the crash of the edge of (his) scimiter.