ancient indian history


AGATHOCLES was an indo greek king, who reigned between around 182 to 170 BC. He was Sub-king of Gandhara and Kapisav. Agathocles rule was the immediate successor of Pantaleon & was another son of Demetrius 1

1. Attic tetradrachm B.M. and P.M.
References: Rapson, CHI PL. lII 6 R. B Whitehead, L M. C.
Section- I, No 42, Pl. II, M.V D Mohan Indo-Greek Coins
pp. 185-186, Pl III, 1.

Το 1. mon. 15. R. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΩΣ, 1. ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ,

2. AE. B.M.and P.M.
References: L.M.C., Sec. I, p. 18, Pl.II.51, reverse legend wrongly deciphered as hitaja same; A.S.R., 1928, p.65, no.3; J.Marshall, Taxila, Pl. 236, no.45, also see vol. II, p.847; and Allan, B.M.C., India. pp. cxxxi sq.; M.V.D. Mohan, I.G. Coins, p. 186.
Pl.III, 2. 

Obv: In a dotted circle. draped bust of Agathocles diad with both ends floating freely at the back.

Rev:  Zeus standing facing clad in himation, naked above the waist, leaning with hand on long scepter on outstretched hand Hekate who holds two torches.

Obv: Six-arched Chaitya. Kh. legend: Akathukreyasa:
Rev: Tree in railing. Kh. legend, hiraña [ same]
3. AR: Attic tetradrachm. Commemorative, B.M.
References: P. Gardner, B.M.C. Pl.XXX 5; A. Cunningham, C.A.S.E., II.3. E.J. Rapson, C.H.I.. Pl. IV. 1; M.V.D. Mohan, I.G. Coins, p. 186. Pl. III, 3.
Obv: In dotted circle, head of Antichus II r-. diad. one end floating. To r. ANTIOXOY, to 1 NIKATOPOΣ

Rev: Zeus striding 1.. hurling thunderbolt, to 1. eagle 1. and wreath.
To r- mon 140, To r. ΒΑΣ Ι/EYONTOPOΣ.1. ACAGOKΛEOY; in exergue ∆IKAIOY
4. AR. Attic tetradrachm. Commemorative. B.M.
References: E.J. Rapson, C.H.I., Pl-III- 9 (but wrongly assigned to Demetrius I); see also P. Gardner, B.M.C. IV. 2;
M.V. D. Mohan, I. G. Coins, p.185, P.III.4.
Obv. In dotted circle, head of Modotus I r., died. end floating freely and the other suspended stiffy.
Rev: Zeus striding 1.. hurling thunderbolt, in front of him eagle 1. and wreath. The whole device exactly as on no-3 above). To r- mon. 15, Legend, r.
5. AR. Attic Tetradrachm, commemorative B.M.
References: P. Gardner, B.M.C., IV.3. E.J. Rapson C.H.I. PI.IV.2, M.V.D. Mohan, Indo Greek Coins, p.187. Pl.III, 5.
Obv: In dotted circle, head of Euthydemus I r- died.
R. EYθY∆HMOY, 1- θEOY.
Rev: Harakles seated 1- on rocks, grasping in r. hand his club, the other end of which rests on knee. Το r. mon. 15. R. ΒΑΣΙΛΕΎΟΝΤΟΣ, ΜΕ ΑΓΑΘΟΚΛΕΟΥΣ. in exergue AIKAIOY.

Antimachus Theos and Agathocles both claim descent on their pedigree coins from Euthydemus, and therefore, both must belong to the Euthydemus dynasty. Apart from this, the border of plain dots and draped shoulders, as found on their coins, place them close to Demetrius I Pantaleon 1is intimately connected in the matter of chronology, person, and locality with Agathocles. Their coin types are almost identical, in some cases, the only difference lying in the names of the princes Pantaleon’s city goddess leopard type’ is identical to Agathocles’s similar type. So are their ‘Dionysos leopard types of nickel as well as copper coins. On all these types the Prakrit legend is in Brahm characters, not in the usual Kharoshthl. It is certain that one of these two princes succeeded the other at Pushkalavati. The senior of the two must have been Pantaleon, whose coins are very rare, and only three of whose types have survived. Pantaleon must have met a violent end and a younger brother was probably called upon to take his place. Agathocles first ruled under Diodotus and then under Euthydemus and Antiochus as a sub-king. The coinage of Agathocles incorporated the Brahmi script and several deities like Vishnu and Shiva. Agathocles issued coinage with Brahmi as well as Khroshthi script with images of both Buddhist as well Hindu pantheons. Buddhist symbols such as stupa and the “tree in railing” have been found on his coins. The coins display Avatars of Vishnu Balrama Krishna and Sudarshan chakra Else other indo greek kings had earlier preferred greek divinities like Zeus, Apollo, Artemis, Athena etc.

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