The Gandharas

Written by Alok Mohan on May 28, 2023. Posted in Uncategorized

The Yaunas, Kambojas and Gandhäras are grouped together as typical peoples of the Uttarapatha in the Mahabharata. The first two are treated as the border peoples of the West, i.e. North-West in the Pali Assalayana Sutta. The territories of all the three tribes were therefore contiguous. Dr. Barua takes the term aparanta in the sense of western’, but explains, “It must be also with reference to the western or north-western and of the Uttarapatha Asoka North-Western Road, or represented the Yaunas, Kambojas, Gandharas, Nabhakas Näbhapamktis and others as aparantas or Westerns, in as much as their territories were situated near about it.

Gandhara was an Aryan civilization of northwest India. Gandhara, means “land of fragrance”
The Gandharas
According to the Ramayana the territory of the Gändbaras or Gandharvas of the Uttarapatha lay on both sides of the Indus. The principal city of their transIndus territories was Pusbkalavatı or Utpalävat, which is now represented by Prang and Charsadda, 17 miles northeast of Peshawar on the Swat river. Taksbasila near Rawalpindi was the main city of their hinter-Indus territory. Gandhara or Gandharva was the collective designation of numerous peoples inhabiting the Gandhāra country, e.g., the Apritas, the Madhumantas, the Aśvakas and the highly cultured people of the Takshasila region. Afridis are the descendants of the Apritas. Their country Triravatika (modern Afridi Tira) is demarcated on three sides by the rivers Kabul, Indus and Kurram. The country of the Madhumantas called Tryakshayaṇa (modern Tar Khan) lies between the rivers Kunar and Panjkora. Now known as Mohmands, they continue to occupy their old homes. The Aśvakas lived in the Swat valley and their coins, with the Brahmi legend Vatasvaka, are found from this district. Also known as the Aśvaganas, they have given their name to the whole of Afghanistan.
In Asoka’s time only the northern portion of the Gandhara territory, on either side of the Indus above Shahbazgarhi and Mansehra, formed the semi-independent tribal states, the rest being under his direct rule.

1. हतेषु तेषु सर्वेषु भरतः कैकयीसुतः । निवेशयामास तदा समृद्धे द्वे पुरोत्तमे ।। तक्षं तक्षशिलायां तु पुष्कलं पुष्कलावते । गंधर्वदेशे रुचिरे गांधारविषये च सः ॥

2. उत्तरापथजन्मानः कार्तयिष्यामि तानपि । यौन-काम्बोज – गांधारा: किराता बबरैः सह ॥

3. सिन्धोरुभयतः पाश्र्व देश: परमशोभनः ।
तं च रक्षन्ति गंधर्वाः सायुधा युद्धकोविदा ॥

Alok Mohan

The admin, Alok Mohan, is a graduate mechanical engineer & possess following post graduate specializations:- M Tech Mechanical Engineering Production Engineering Marine engineering Aeronautical Engineering Computer Sciences Software Engineering Specialization He has authored several articles/papers, which are published in various websites & books. Studium Press India Ltd has published one of his latest contributions “Standardization of Education” as a senior author in a book along with many other famous writers of international repute. Alok Mohan has held important positions in both Govt & Private organisations as a Senior professional & as an Engineer & possess close to four decades accomplished experience. As an aeronautical engineer, he ensured accident incident free flying. As leader of indian team during early 1990s, he had successfully ensured smooth induction of Chukar III PTA with Indian navy as well as conduct of operational training. As an aeronautical engineer, he was instrumental in establishing major aircraft maintenance & repair facilities. He is a QMS, EMS & HSE consultant. He provides consultancy to business organisations for implimentation of the requirements of ISO 45001 OH & S, ISO 14001 EMS & ISO 9001 QMS, AS 9100, AS9120 Aero Space Standards. He is a qualified ISO 9001 QMS, ISO 14001 EMS, ISO 45001 OH & S Lead Auditor (CQI/IRCA recognised certification courses) & HSE Consultant. He is a qualified Zed Master Trainer & Zed Assessor. He has thorough knowledge of six sigma quality concepts & has also been awarded industry 4, certificate from the United Nations Industrial Development Organisation Knowledge Hub Training Platform  He is a Trainer, a Counselor, an Advisor and a Competent professional of cross functional exposures. He has successfully implimented requirements of various international management system standards in several organizations. He is a dedicated technocrat with expertise in Quality Assurance & Quality Control, Facility Management, General Administration, Marketing, Security, Training, Administration etc. He is a graduate mechanical engineer with specialization in aeronautical engineering. He is always eager to be involved in imparting training, implementing new ideas and improving existing processes by utilizing his vast experience.